BACKGROUND: Psychological factors are one of many that contribute to the increased risk of a psychiatric disorder's occurrence after childbirth. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to determine the relation between psychological variables, such as sense of self-efficacy and dispositional optimism, and the risk of mood disorder's occurrence in women after childbirth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred eighty five women, who gave birth in the University Hospital no. 2 in Bydgoszcz, took part in the study. To measure the risk occurrence of mood disorder symptoms after childbirth the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) was used. Obtaining a score of 12 or more points out of 30 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was an indicator of mood disorders. To study psychological variables the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) were used. RESULTS: Twenty three point two percent of women obtained 12 or more points in the EDPS scale. The average result in GSES scale for all women who took part in the study was 30.80 and indicated a high estimation of women's own capabilities in dealing with new situations. Obtained results indicated a surprisingly small group of women with low estimation of their own capabilities (n = 15). However, negative correlation between EDPS and GSES parameters, on a statistically significant level (p < 0.0001) was found (r = 0.27). In the course of analysis of the results concerning optimism-pessimism dimension rated with LOT-R, the average result was calculated to be 15.6. In the same group, 61 women showed pessimistic tendencies, and 23 (34.8%) suffered from mood disorders. Scores obtained in EDPS negatively correlated with the results in LOT-R (r = -0.43) and are statistically significant (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In the first week after childbirth, one-fourth of women are in danger of the occurrence of mood disorders. There is a negative correlation between the sense of self-efficacy and dispositional optimism and risk of occurrence of mood disorders after childbirth.