RATIONALE: Clitoria ternatea, commonly known as Aparajita, is used as Medhya rasayana in Ayurveda. The role of C. ternatea in experimental models of cognitive impairment is yet to be explored. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to study the effect of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of C. ternatea on biochemical and behavioral parameters related to cognitive impairment in in vitro and in vivo studies. METHODS: In vitro free radical scavenging and enzyme-inhibitory (cholinesterase, glycogen synthase kinase-3-β, rho kinase, prolyl endopeptidase, catechol-O-methyl transferase, and lipoxygenase) activities of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of C. ternatea plant were evaluated. Based on in vitro results, hydroalcoholic extract of C. ternatea (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was selected for evaluation in intracerebroventricularly injected streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cognitive impairment in male Wistar rats. Behavioral assessment was performed at baseline and on the 14th, 21st, and 28th days after STZ injection using elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, Morris water maze, and photoactometer. Oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, nitric oxide levels, and superoxide dismutase activity), cholinesterase activity, and rho kinase (ROCK II) expression were studied in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats' brain at the end of the study. RESULTS: The hydroalcoholic extract possessed significantly more in vitro antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory activities as compared to aqueous extract. The hydroalcoholic extract of C. ternatea prevented STZ-induced cognitive impairment dose dependently by reducing oxidative stress, cholinesterase activity, and ROCK II expression. CONCLUSION: In vitro and in vivo results suggest the potential of hydroalcoholic extract of C. ternatea for treatment of cognitive deficit in neurological disorders.