Mitochondria play a central role in molecular events leading to tissue damage in ischemia. The present study examines the role of the alcoholic extract of T. chebula (TCE) pretreatment (50 mg/100 g body weight) to attenuate the isoproterenol (ISO) (20mg/100g body wt, sc) induced alterations on heart mitochondrial ultrastucture and function in experimental rats. ISO induced cardiotoxicity was evidenced by a significant rise in the level of lactate, decrease in enzyme activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), mitochondrial respiration, levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and oxidative phosphorylation. TCE intervention significantly attenuated the above alterations by ISO and retained near normal function of the mitochondria. Electron microscopic studies of the mitochondria further support the isoproterenol induced deleterious changes and accredit the protective effect of TCE on mitochondrial structure and energy metabolism.