The fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz has been used as a traditional medicine in Asia and contains tannic acid, chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid and corilagin. Extract from T. chebula seeds (TCE) has various biological functions. We observed the neuroprotective effects of TCE against ischemic damage in the hippocampal C1 region (CA1) of the gerbil that had received oral administrations of TCE (100 mg/kg) once a day for 7 days before the induction of transient cerebral ischemia. In the TCE-treated ischemia group, neuronal neuclei (a marker for neurons)-positive neurons were distinctively abundant (62% of the sham group) in the CA1 4 days after ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) compared to those (12.2% of the sham group) in the vehicle-treated ischemia group. Four days after I-R TCE treatment markedly decreased the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the ischemic CA1 compared with the vehicle-treated ischemia group. In addition, immunoreactivities of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the CA1 of the TCE-treated ischemia group were much higher than those in the vehicle-ischemia group 4 days after I-R. Protein levels of SOD1, SOD2 and BDNF in the TCE-treated ischemia group were also much higher than those in the vehicle-ischemia group 4 days after I-R. These results indicate that the repeated supplement of TCE protected neurons from ischemic damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia by maintaining SODs and BDNF levels as well as decreasing glial activation.