Human development: biological and genetic processes
Language: 
English
Short Title: 
Human development
Abstract: 

Adaptation is a central organizing principle throughout biology, whether we are studying species, populations, or individuals. Adaptation in biological systems occurs in response to molar and molecular environments. Thus, we would predict that genetic systems and nervous systems would be dynamic (cybernetic) in contrast to previous conceptualizations with genes and brains fixed in form and function. Questions of nature versus nurture are meaningless, and we must turn to epigenetics--the way in which biology and experience work together to enhance adaptation throughout thick and thin. Defining endophenotypes--road markers that bring us closer to the biological origins of the developmental journey--facilitates our understanding of adaptive or maladaptive processes. For human behavioral disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, the inherent plasticity of the nervous system requires a systems approach to incorporate all of the myriad epigenetic factors that can influence such outcomes.

Author(s): 
Gottesman, Irving I.
Hanson, Daniel R.
Item Type: 
Journal Article
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Psychology
Journal Abbreviation: 
Annu Rev Psychol
Publication Date: 
2005
Publication Year: 
2005
Pages: 
263-286
Volume: 
56
ISSN: 
0066-4308
DOI: 
10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070208
Library Catalog: 
PubMed
Extra: 
PMID: 15709936

Turabian/Chicago Citation

Irving I. Gottesman and Daniel R. Hanson. 2005. "Human development: biological and genetic processes." Annual Review of Psychology 56: 263-286. 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070208.

Wikipedia Citation

<ref> {{Cite journal | doi = 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070208 | issn = 0066-4308 | volume = 56 | pages = 263-286 | last = Gottesman | first = Irving I. | coauthors = Hanson, Daniel R. | title = Human development: biological and genetic processes | journal = Annual Review of Psychology | date = 2005 | pmid = | pmc = }} </ref>