Affect

Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

To date, there are few known predictors of stress-induced eating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether physiological and psychological variables are related to eating after stress. Specifically, we hypothesized that high cortisol reactivity in response to stress may lead to eating after stress, given the relations between cortisol with both psychological stress and mechanisms affecting hunger. To test this, we exposed fifty-nine healthy pre-menopausal women to both a stress session and a control session on different days.

Author(s): 
Epel, E.
Lapidus, R.
McEwen, B.
Brownell, K.
Publication Title: 
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

The combination of less positive and more negative expectations for the future (i.e., lower optimism and higher pessimism) increases risk for disease and early mortality. We tested the possibility that expectancies might influence health outcomes by altering the rate of biological aging, specifically of the immune system (immunosenescence). However, no studies to date have examined associations between optimism or pessimism and indicators of immunosenescence such as leukocyte telomere length (TL) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels.

Author(s): 
O'Donovan, A.
Lin, J.
Tillie, J.
Tillie, J. M.
Dhabhar, F. S.
Wolkowitz, O. M.
Wolkowitz, O.
Blackburn, E. H.
Blackburn, E.
Epel, E. S.
Epel, E.
Publication Title: 
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

The combination of less positive and more negative expectations for the future (i.e., lower optimism and higher pessimism) increases risk for disease and early mortality. We tested the possibility that expectancies might influence health outcomes by altering the rate of biological aging, specifically of the immune system (immunosenescence). However, no studies to date have examined associations between optimism or pessimism and indicators of immunosenescence such as leukocyte telomere length (TL) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels.

Author(s): 
O'Donovan, A.
Lin, J.
Tillie, J.
Tillie, J. M.
Dhabhar, F. S.
Wolkowitz, O. M.
Wolkowitz, O.
Blackburn, E. H.
Blackburn, E.
Epel, E. S.
Epel, E.
Publication Title: 
Obesity Research

OBJECTIVE: A previous study in our laboratory (Moyer et al., Obes Res. 1994;2:255-62 found that, in response to uncontrollable laboratory stress, women with a high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) had higher cortisol reactivity, poorer coping skills, and lower anger responses than women with low WHR. We aimed to compare high WHR men's stress responses to these women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The current study examined cortisol reactivity and psychological data of 27 healthy high WHR men exposed to the same laboratory challenges as the women from our previous study.

Author(s): 
Epel, E. E.
Moyer, A. E.
Martin, C. D.
Macary, S.
Cummings, N.
Rodin, J.
Rebuffe-Scrive, M.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Elevated circulating levels of glucocorticoids are associated with psychiatric symptoms across several different conditions. It remains unknown if this hormonal abnormality is a cause or an effect of the psychiatric conditions. For example, the hypercortisolemia observed in a subset of patients with depression may have a direct impact on the symptoms of depression, but it is also possible that the hypercortisolemia merely reflects the stress associated with depression.

Author(s): 
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Burke, Heather
Epel, Elissa S.
Reus, Victor I.
Publication Title: 
BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

Gestational factors play a role in the development of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. In utero conditions influence future mental health through epigenetic mechanisms, which alter gene expression without affecting DNA coding sequence. Environmental factors account for at least 60% of the risk for developing major depression, and earlier onset of depressive illness has been observed over the past decades. I speculate that gestational factors may play a greater role in programing depression than previously recognized.

Author(s): 
Dulawa, Stephanie C.
Publication Title: 
Epigenomics

AIM: In view of the potential effects of psychiatric drugs on DNA methylation, we investigated whether medication use in bipolar disorder is associated with DNA methylation signatures. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES: Blood-based DNA methylation patterns of six frequently used psychotropic drugs (lithium, quetiapine, olanzapine, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and valproic acid) were examined in 172 bipolar disorder patients. After adjustment for cell type composition, we investigated gene networks, principal components, hypothesis-driven genes and epigenome-wide individual loci.

Author(s): 
Houtepen, Lotte C.
van Bergen, Annet H.
Vinkers, Christiaan H.
Boks, Marco P. M.
Publication Title: 
Applied Psychology. Health and Well-Being

BACKGROUND: This research was conducted to examine whether people high in emotional intelligence (EI) have greater well-being than people low in EI. METHOD: The Situational Test of Emotion Management, Scales of Psychological Well-being, and Day Reconstruction Method were completed by 131 college students. RESULTS: Responses to the Situational Test of Emotion Management were strongly related to eudaimonic well-being as measured by responses on the Scales of Psychological Well-being (r=.54).

Author(s): 
Burrus, Jeremy
Betancourt, Anthony
Holtzman, Steven
Minsky, Jennifer
MacCann, Carolyn
Roberts, Richard D.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns.

Author(s): 
Boehm, Julia K.
Chen, Ying
Williams, David R.
Ryff, Carol
Kubzansky, Laura D.
Publication Title: 
Psychology and Aging

Research and theory suggest that emotional goals are increasingly prioritized with age. Related empirical work has shown that, compared with younger adults, older adults attend to and remember positive information more than negative information. This age-related positivity effect has been eliminated in experiments that have explicitly demanded processing of both positive and negative information.

Author(s): 
English, Tammy
Carstensen, Laura L.

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