Analgesics, Opioid

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Labour is a normal physiological process, but is usually associated with pain and discomfort. Numerous methods are used to relieve labour pain. These include pharmacological (e.g. epidural, opioids, inhaled analgesia) and non-pharmacological (e.g. hypnosis, acupuncture) methods of pain management. Non-opioid drugs are a pharmacological method used to control mild to moderate pain. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence regarding the effects and safety of the use of non-opioid drugs to relieve pain in labour.

Author(s): 
Othman, Mohammad
Jones, Leanne
Neilson, James P.
Publication Title: 
Pain Medicine (Malden, Mass.)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine which analgesic modalities used following discharge have the greatest efficacy in reducing postoperative pain after elective non-axial orthopedic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review was conducted using the databases CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, as well as clinical practice guidelines databases and trial registries. Titles and abstracts were perused by two reviewers for randomized clinical trials in English fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Author(s): 
Roberts, Matthew
Brodribb, Wendy
Mitchell, Geoffrey
Publication Title: 
Annals of Internal Medicine

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people in the United States. It is a complex disease whose etiology bridges biomechanics and biochemistry. Evidence is growing for the role of systemic factors, such as genetics, diet, estrogen use, and bone density, and local biomechanical factors, such as muscle weakness, obesity, and joint laxity. These risk factors are particularly important in the weight-bearing joints, and modifying them may help prevent osteoarthritis-related pain and disability.

Author(s): 
Felson, D. T.
Lawrence, R. C.
Hochberg, M. C.
McAlindon, T.
Dieppe, P. A.
Minor, M. A.
Blair, S. N.
Berman, B. M.
Fries, J. F.
Weinberger, M.
Lorig, K. R.
Jacobs, J. J.
Goldberg, V.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

PURPOSE: Dyspnea is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by terminally ill cancer patients. This study aimed to evaluate the role of interventions for the palliation of dyspnea. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing all pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions for dyspnea palliation in cancer patients, and searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, conference proceedings, and references. Two reviewers independently appraised the quality of trials and extracted data. RESULTS: Our search yielded 18 trials.

Author(s): 
Ben-Aharon, Irit
Gafter-Gvili, Anat
Paul, Mical
Leibovici, Leonard
Stemmer, Salomon M.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge for all healthcare providers. The objective of this systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture and related techniques as adjunct analgesics for acute postoperative pain management. We searched the databases of Medline (1966-2007), CINAHL, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2006), and Scopus for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture for postoperative pain management.

Author(s): 
Sun, Y.
Gan, T. J.
Dubose, J. W.
Habib, A. S.
Publication Title: 
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

This review extends a prior meta-analysis of acupuncture's utility for treating opioid detoxification, addressing the efficacy of acupuncture when combined with allopathic therapies. Both English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized trials comparing acupuncture combined with opioid agonist treatment versus opioid agonists alone for treating symptoms of opioid withdrawal. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with Jadad's scale (1-2 = low; 3-5 = high).

Author(s): 
Liu, Ting-ting
Shi, Jie
Epstein, David H.
Bao, Yan-Ping
Lu, Lin
Publication Title: 
Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology

PURPOSE: Dyspnea is one of the most distressing symptoms experienced by terminally ill cancer patients. This study aimed to evaluate the role of interventions for the palliation of dyspnea. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing all pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions for dyspnea palliation in cancer patients, and searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, conference proceedings, and references. Two reviewers independently appraised the quality of trials and extracted data. RESULTS: Our search yielded 18 trials.

Author(s): 
Ben-Aharon, Irit
Gafter-Gvili, Anat
Paul, Mical
Leibovici, Leonard
Stemmer, Salomon M.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge for all healthcare providers. The objective of this systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture and related techniques as adjunct analgesics for acute postoperative pain management. We searched the databases of Medline (1966-2007), CINAHL, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2006), and Scopus for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture for postoperative pain management.

Author(s): 
Sun, Y.
Gan, T. J.
Dubose, J. W.
Habib, A. S.
Publication Title: 
American Family Physician

Knee osteoarthritis is a common disabling condition that affects more than one-third of persons older than 65 years. Exercise, weight loss, physical therapy, intra-articular corticosteroid injections, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and braces or heel wedges decrease pain and improve function. Acetaminophen, glucosamine, ginger, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM-e), capsaicin cream, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acupuncture, and tai chi may offer some benefit. Tramadol has a poor trade-off between risks and benefits and is not routinely recommended.

Author(s): 
Ringdahl, Erika
Pandit, Sandesh
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Labour is a normal physiological process, but is usually associated with pain and discomfort. Numerous methods are used to relieve labour pain. These include pharmacological (e.g. epidural, opioids, inhaled analgesia) and non-pharmacological (e.g. hypnosis, acupuncture) methods of pain management. Non-opioid drugs are a pharmacological method used to control mild to moderate pain. OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence regarding the effects and safety of the use of non-opioid drugs to relieve pain in labour.

Author(s): 
Othman, Mohammad
Jones, Leanne
Neilson, James P.

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