The pain and mood disturbance of 54 women with metastatic carcinoma of the breast were studied over the course of one year. A random sample was offered weekly group therapy during the year, with or without self-hypnosis training directed toward enhancing their competence at mastering pain and stress related to cancer. Both treatment groups demonstrated significantly less self-rated pain sensation (t = 2.5 p less than 0.02) and suffering (t = 2.17, p less than 0.03) than the control sample.
A new series of 2,3-cyclopentano-3,4-dihydro-4-spirocyclopentano-1,5-benzodi azepine which are substituted in 5-position with beta-N-heterocycloethyl or gamma-N-heterocyclo-n-propyl groups have been synthesized and evaluated for their CNS depressant activity including anticonvulsant, analgesic and pentobarbital induced hypnosis. These compounds were also investigated for their ability to inhibit in vitro succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). In most of the compounds an appreciable CNS depressant activity has been found to be associated with the compounds possessing good SDH inhibitory activity.
Sufentanil citrate is a potent analogue of fentanyl that has been evaluated primarily for use in opioid anesthesia. It is a pure mu receptor agonist and produces the typical spectrum of opioid effects. The major side effects are truncal rigidity and prolonged respiratory depression. In doses of 4-30 micrograms/kg sufentanil produces hypnosis and suppresses most hemodynamic and hormonal responses to surgery without producing significant cardiovascular depression. In this respect sufentanil and fentanyl have clear advantages over morphine, meperidine and potent inhalation anesthetics.
Several fluorine-containing 3- aroylmethyl -3-hydroxyindol-2-ones (4a-g), 3- aroylmethyleneindol -2-ones (5a-g) and 3- aroylmethylindol -2-ones (6a-g) were synthesized from the corresponding fluorine-containing indole-2,3-diones and appropriate ketones. The compounds were characterized by spectral studies. Representative compounds of each series were tested on mice for CNS activities, viz. analgesic and anticonvulsant and the effects were also observed against amphetamine-induced stereotypy, on conditioned avoidance response and on potentiation of pentobarbitone sodium hypnosis.
Fifteen patients with a history of painful episodes of sickle cell disease were given training in progressive relaxation, thermal biofeedback, cognitive strategies, and self-hypnosis to help them develop self-management skills to relieve pain. Results show a 38.5% reduction in the number of emergency room visits, a 31% reduction in the number of hospitalizations, and a 50% reduction in the inpatient stay during the 6 months since the beginning of therapy compared to 6 months prior to therapy. Analgesic intake was reduced by 29% for those who were using it regularly.
The pharmacological effects of the new platelet aggregation inhibitor cilostazol (6-(4-(1-cyclohexyl-1 H-tetrazol-5-yl)butoxy]-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone, OPC-13013) on the central nervous system were studied. Cilostazol had little effect on the general behavior of mice up to a dose of 1000 mg/kg p.o. and caused disappearance of pinna reflex, alertness and startle response and slight ptosis in only one of 6 rats at a dose of 1000 mg/kg p.o.
A series of isodithiobiurets, dithiobiurets, and dithiazoles was synthesized and tested for biological activity. Generally, the compounds potentiated the hypnosis induced by pentobarbitone (50 mg/kg ip) in albino mice and exhibited antifungal and insecticidal activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Periplanata americana, respectively. Some compounds showed anticonvulsant and analgesic activity in albino rats.
The milieu of the critical care unit is stressful for both the patient and health care professionals. As such, it has the potential to increase pain perception in patients, and decrease the nurse's awareness of pain relief needs of the patient. Several physical and pharmacologic methods of pain relief were discussed in this article. Nontechnologic analgesia such as hypnosis and relaxation were introduced as adjuncts or alternatives to more familiar methods of pain relief.
Brahmi Rasayan, an Ayurvedic preparation, was studied in mice and rats for its effects on the central nervous system at oral doses ranging between 1 and 30 g/kg. Observational screening in mice was carried out following a multiparametric check list. The test material was studied for its effect on pentobarbitone hypnosis, motor co-ordination, tail-withdrawal reaction time, electroshock, chemoconvulsions, haloperidol-induced catalepsy and conditioned avoidance response. The test material exhibited a sedative effect and significantly prolonged the hypnotic action of pentobarbitone.
Almost three quarters of patients with cancer have severe pain, from invasion of the cancer itself, from effects of therapy, or from causes unrelated to the cancer (but often exacerbated by it). With the proper pain-management strategy, however, pain can be controlled in most patients. The analgesic ladder for pain control, promoted by the World Health Organization, begins with a nonnarcotic agent, progresses to a weak narcotic plus a nonnarcotic, and finally reaches a strong narcotic. Adjuvant agents, which increase the analgesic potency of the drug being used, may be added at any level.