Awareness

Publication Title: 
Anaesthesia

Thirty patients scheduled for elective cardiopulmonary bypass surgery were interviewed pre-operatively and postoperatively to assess changes in their emotional state and recollections, both aware and unaware, of intra-operative events. A random selection of patients heard a prerecorded audio tape towards the end of bypass after they were rewarmed to 37 degrees C. The tape contained suggestions for patients to touch their chin during the postoperative interview, to remember three sentences and to recover quickly. The interviewers were blind to the experimental condition.

Author(s): 
Goldmann, L.
Shah, M. V.
Hebden, M. W.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

We operationalized and tested E. R. Hilgard's (1973a, 1977b) neodissociation theory. His work suggested that the dissociation necessary for experiencing hypnotic phenomena may be attributable to a general capacity for dissociation that should be measurable outside of the domain of hypnosis. We used several types of operational definitions and tasks in order to capture a wide range of meanings.

Author(s): 
Stava, L. J.
Jaffa, M.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Psychosomatics: Official Publication of the International Psychosomatics Institute

The details of an easily replicable intervention using hypnosis in the treatment of bulimia are presented. Follow-up data at one month, three months, six months, and one year indicated that the intervention appeared to be effective in two out of the three cases presented. Factors affecting treatment outcomes are discussed.

Author(s): 
Barabasz, M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease

Recently, there has been a great deal of clinical and experimental interest expressed in dissociative disorders and dissociative states. Theories of mental organization and personality have been formulated as a result of this new emphasis on dissociative phenomena. Dreams may possibly be thought of as dissociative phenomena of a particular type that reflect a monitoring of and reaction to internal and external conditions within the dreamer.

Author(s): 
Gabel, S.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Psychosomatics: Official Publication of the International Psychosomatics Institute

The details of an easily replicable intervention using hypnosis in the treatment of bulimia are presented. Follow-up data at one month, three months, six months, and one year indicated that the intervention appeared to be effective in two out of the three cases presented. Factors affecting treatment outcomes are discussed.

Author(s): 
Barabasz, M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Abnormal Psychology

We tested a hypothesis from parallel distributed processing theory that highly hypnotizable subjects have greater connection strengths along verbal pathways and would show greater Stroop effects than low hypnotizable subjects. Using Cheesman & Merikle's (1986) paradigm, which varied cue visibility and probability, we assessed automatic and strategic effects on Stroop performance. Compared with 9 low and 9 moderately hypnotizable subjects, 9 highly hypnotizable ones showed significantly greater Stroop effects for both visible- and degraded-word trials.

Author(s): 
Dixon, M.
Brunet, A.
Laurence, J. R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Contrary to predictions, the pseudomemory rate of subjects who received prehypnotic information that hypnosis increased recall was indistinguishable from the pseudomemory rates of subjects who received information that hypnosis did not increase recall and of subjects who received no specific prehypnotic information. Indeed, by the last recall trial, none of the 47 subjects exhibited pseudomemory.

Author(s): 
Lynn, S. J.
Milano, M.
Weekes, J. R.
Publication Title: 
Biofeedback and Self-Regulation

An analogue study involving two experiments was conducted to test the initial carryover effects of hypnosis, meditation, and relaxation upon self-reports of awareness. In the first experiment, concentrative meditators reported fewer nonsensorial events than controls. In the second experiment, concentrative meditators again reported fewer nonsensorial events, but covariate analysis and pretest/posttest comparisons revealed that it was the controls who had changed, increasing their nonsensorial reports. In addition, the relaxation group increased its reports of somatic awareness.

Author(s): 
Colby, F.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

We have studied interactions between i.v. propofol and midazolam for induction of anaesthesia in 200 unpremedicated female patients undergoing elective gynaecological surgery. Using end-points of "hypnosis" (loss of response to verbal command) and "anaesthesia" (loss of response to a 5-s transcutaneous tetanic stimulus), we determined dose-response curves for propofol and midazolam alone and in combination. For hypnosis, synergistic interaction was found (P less than 0.01), the combination having 1.44 times the potency of the individual agents.

Author(s): 
Short, T. G.
Chui, P. T.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Ego receptivity has been described as important for the psychotherapy process and as a characteristic of hypnosis (Deikman, 1974: Dosamantes-Alperson, 1979; Fromm, 1979). Receptivity also has been associated with a measure of absorption (Tellegen, 1981). In the first pilot study with 6 dance/movement therapy students, higher observer ratings of receptivity were associated with greater hypnotizability (r = .79, df = 4, p less than .05, 2-tailed test). In the second pilot study, the correlation was replicated (r = .51, df = 12, p = .06, 2-tailed test) with 14 dance/movement therapy students.

Author(s): 
Goodman, L. S.
Holroyd, J.

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