Awareness

Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

The present study attempted to assess the effectiveness of commonly used deepening techniques and of surreptitiously provided stimulation on hypnotizability scores, in-hypnosis depth reports, retrospective realness ratings, and the Field Inventory of Hypnotic Depth (Field, 1965). High, medium, and low hypnotizables were assigned in equal numbers to 1 of 3 groups, each containing 54 Ss. Controls were compared to Ss receiving 2 deepening techniques or 2 suggestions for positive and negative hallucinations that were surreptitiously enhanced.

Author(s): 
Page, R. A.
Handley, G. W.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

The present study of prospective time estimation examined the effects of hypnosis on short time intervals using a real-simulator design. The major hypothesis predicted a 2-way interaction between group (high hypnotizable, low hypnotizable, and simulator) and condition (waking and hypnotic) across all 4 time intervals (30, 60, 120, and 240 seconds). It was further hypothesized that on a "suggested" task (a measure of hypnotic depth), high hypnotizable Ss and simulators would not differ from each other but would differ from low hypnotizable Ss.

Author(s): 
Mozenter, R. H.
Kurtz, R. M.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis

This paper briefly reviews the benefits of using age-progression techniques in hypnotherapy, followed by a detailed explanation and illustration of the "back-from-the-future" technique with two case examples, including their outcome. The patients presented with feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, and a sense of futurelessness.

Author(s): 
Torem, M. S.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

The present paper focuses on the influences of social-political needs of various groups with interests in hypnosis (i.e., stage hypnotists, lay hypnotists, licensed practitioners, and researchers). While hypnosis is a specific topic of interest to groups with varying needs, it also serves as an example for other topics in psychology that may overlap the needs of other groups--especially practitioners and researchers.

Author(s): 
Coe, W. C.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

The present paper addresses 3 issues raised by Coe (1992). First, it maintains that the "altered state" issue of the 1960s remains buried in current dichotomous classifications of hypnosis theories as involving either "special processes" or the social-psychological position. Given the current diversity of the field, it appears imprudent to classify theorizing in either/or terms; additionally, despite a history of using the term "altered state" in a circular way, it is not an inherently circular formulation.

Author(s): 
Perry, C.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

A neodissociative model of mind is better equipped than a social-psychological model to deal with the complexities of hypnosis, and of human behavior generally. It recognizes, as Coe's (1992) model does not, that behavior can be more automatically activated than strategically enacted. In particular, Coe's emphasis on human behavior as purposeful and goal directed does not distinguish between goal-directed behavior that serves a purpose, and goal-directed behavior that is performed on purpose.

Author(s): 
Bowers, K. S.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Both clinical and experimental views of hypnosis are social constructions that reflect the biases and interests of practitioners and scientists. Each perspective offers useful metaphors for hypnosis. Underlying clinical uses of the term hypnosis are states of mind associated with imaginative reverie and automatic behavior based on procedural knowledge. Social discourse and narratives shape hypnotic experience, but they are themselves influenced by mechanisms of attention and automaticity.

Author(s): 
Kirmayer, L. J.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

The present paper views Coe's (1992) reflections on the sociopolitical interests in clinical and experimental hypnosis against the background of Braid's Neurypnology of 1843. Topics considered are: the significance of the label "hypnosis"; the controversy over state; the tension between credulity and skepticism; the problem of dissociation and automaticity; current theoretical conflicts; and the relationships between practitioners and researchers.

Author(s): 
Kihlstrom, J. F.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Abnormal Psychology

Suggestibility was assessed in 60 college students after a traditional hypnotic induction, an alert induction, progressive relaxation training, or instruction in goal-directed imagery. Responsiveness to suggestion did not differ between groups. Subjects also generated open-ended reports of their states of awareness and of their experience of 3 hypnotic suggestions. A sample of these reports from 24 moderately to highly suggestible subjects were evaluated by 18 experts in the field of hypnosis.

Author(s): 
Kirsch, I.
Mobayed, C. P.
Council, J. R.
Kenny, D. A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Abnormal Psychology

Frequency of positive and negative experiences accompanying stage hypnosis was assessed in follow-up interviews with 22 participants of university-sponsored performances. Most subjects described their experience positively (relaxing, interesting, exciting, satisfying, illuminating, and pleasurable), but some described it negatively (confusing, silly, annoying, and frightening). Five subjects (22.7%) reported partial or complete amnesia; all were highly responsive to the stage hypnosis suggestions. One subject was completely unable to breach amnesia and felt annoyed and frightened.

Author(s): 
Crawford, H. J.
Kitner-Triolo, M.
Clarke, S. W.
Olesko, B.

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