The two specialty psychological therapies of CBT and IPT remain the treatments of choice for the full range of BED patients, particularly those with high levels of specific eating disorder psychopathology such as overvaluation of body shape and weight. They produce the greatest degree of remission from binge eating as well as improvement in specific eating disorder psychopathology and associated general psychopathology such as depression. The CBT protocol evaluated in the research summarized above was the original manual from Fairburn and colleagues.
Obesity is a pandemic with many complications that increase the societal disease burden and cost of health care, and decrease longevity and quality of life. Currently, 1 in 3 adults in the United States is obese. Physicians must therefore regularly confront obesity and its consequent diseases, and develop strategies for effective treatment and management. This article summarizes current lifestyle modifications, pharmacological treatment, and surgical options for the management of obesity and discusses the benefits, limitations, and risks of each.
Historically, in the 1950s, the chemist Linus Pauling established a relationship between decreased longevity and obesity. At this time, with the advent of studies involving the mechanisms that modulate appetite control, some researchers observed that the hypothalamus is the "appetite centre" and that peripheral tissues have important roles in the modulation of gut inflammatory processes and levels of hormones that control food intake.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the effect of a controlled metabolic diet on reducing urinary calcium oxalate (CaOx) supersaturation in subjects with hyperoxaluric nephrolithiasis after potentially malabsorptive forms of bariatric surgery. METHODS: Subjects with a history of CaOx kidney stones and mild hyperoxaluria after bariatric surgery (n = 9) collected baseline 24-hour urine samples while consuming a free choice diet.
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective method of weight loss for the treatment of morbid obesity. It is more effective when combined with nutritional care, which is sometimes complex, always ongoing and differs between surgical procedures. In Australia, the three most common bariatric surgical procedures are the adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine serum markers of bone turnover at 6 and 18 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. PARTICIPANTS: Ten women and 10 men [body mass index (BMI), 50.2 +/- 8.4 kg/m(2)] were studied at 6 months; 10 women and nine men (BMI, 47.2 +/- 6.6 kg/m(2)) were studied at 18 months after surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum osteocalcin, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTX), PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and leptin were measured. RESULTS: BMI was reduced 32.7 +/- 6.2% at 6 months after surgery.
Obesity has increased alarmingly in the United States and is increasing in many countries of the world. Because obesity is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases, it is important to develop approaches to counter the rapid increase in adiposity. One approach is bariatric surgery, the most successful clinical intervention known for treating obesity. Surgery can result in impressive weight loss and improvement of obesity-related comorbidities. Yet the mechanisms responsible for this remarkable effect of surgery remain controversial.
Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research: Official Journal of the International Society of Diabetes and Vascular Disease
Weight loss after bariatric surgery reduces cardiac risk and morbidity. We examined weight loss effects on arterial stiffness in morbidly obese subjects, in relation to cytokines, circulating and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)-based immune cells and gene expression. Obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) or impaired glucose tolerance (n = 14, mean ± SEM body mass index 42.9 kg/m(2)) underwent 24 weeks' caloric restriction, with gastric banding at 12 weeks.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
PYY is a gut-derived putative satiety signal released in response to nutrient ingestion and is implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Pyy-expressing neurons have been identified in the hindbrain of river lamprey, rodents, and primates. Despite this high evolutionary conservation, little is known about central PYY neurons. Using in situ hybridization, PYY-Cre;ROSA-EYFP mice, and immunohistochemistry, we identified PYY cell bodies in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus region of the hindbrain. PYY projections were present in the dorsal vagal complex and hypoglossal nucleus.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a public health problem with a prevalence of 345 million people worldwide that it may double by the year 2030 and have a high costs and mortality. Gastrointestinal surgery is accepted as a form of treatment that was already suggested for obese in 1987 by Pories, confirmed for obese patients by the metaanalysis of Buchwald and the direct comparison of gastric bypass with medical treatment in the study of Schauer that demonstrate a 4 fold greater resolution rate of DM with surgery.