International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
At the beginning of the twentieth century Freud and Pavlov made complementary theoretical splits in their observational field. This splitting initiated a dialectical interaction that tended to polarize the Freudian mental world of insight and the psyche against the Pavlovian outer world of learning theories and the soma. The 1950s saw an exaggerated polarization between strict behaviorists and "classical" psychoanalysts. The linkage of ideas of therapeutic action with metapsychology also dates from Freud and is briefly illustrated.
Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory.
Health Education & Behavior: The Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
OBJECTIVE. Evaluate similarities and differences in the self-care domain of health lifestyle among older, rural-dwelling women and men. METHOD: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interview data from 62 community-dwelling older (M = 74.3 years) African and European American women and men. RESULTS: Both older women and men rely heavily on over-the-counter medications and home remedies for self-care; professional health care is typically sought when self-care is not effective.