Brain

Publication Title: 
Brain and Cognition

The most diffuse forms of meditation derive from Hinduism and Buddhism spiritual traditions. Different cognitive processes are set in place to reach these meditation states. According to an historical-philological hypothesis (Wynne, 2009) the two forms of meditation could be disentangled.

Author(s): 
Tomasino, Barbara
Chiesa, Alberto
Fabbro, Franco
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Sexual Medicine

INTRODUCTION: Optimal management of provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), thought to be the most common form of chronic dyspareunia, is unclear. AIM: To integrate recent brain data on chronic pain circuitry with stress-induced neuroendocrine mechanisms in the skin and the stress burden (allostatic load) of women with PVD; to also clarify the typical chronicity and negative sexual sequelae associated with PVD; and then review modulation of pain circuitry by cognitive therapy and mindfulness practice and apply to PVD management. Methods.?

Author(s): 
Basson, Rosemary
Publication Title: 
CNS spectrums

This article reviews the theory, clinical application, and empirical findings on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for mental health and addictive disorders. Expanding upon the research demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for addiction, this article develops and explores the rationale for combining mindfulness-based interventions with evidence-based CBTs in treating addictive disorders, with an emphasis on substance use disorders with co-occurring mood disorders.

Author(s): 
Hoppes, Kimberly
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Numerous studies have begun to address how the brain's gray and white matter may be shaped by meditation. This research is yet to be integrated, however, and two fundamental questions remain: Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? If so, what is the magnitude of these differences? To address these questions, we reviewed and meta-analyzed 123 brain morphology differences from 21 neuroimaging studies examining ?300 meditation practitioners.

Author(s): 
Fox, Kieran C. R.
Nijeboer, Savannah
Dixon, Matthew L.
Floman, James L.
Ellamil, Melissa
Rumak, Samuel P.
Sedlmeier, Peter
Christoff, Kalina
Publication Title: 
Brain and Cognition

The objective of the current study was to systematically review the evidence of the effect of secular mindfulness techniques on function and structure of the brain. Based on areas known from traditional meditation neuroimaging results, we aimed to explore a neuronal explanation of the stress-reducing effects of the 8-week Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) program.

Author(s): 
Gotink, Rinske A.
Meijboom, Rozanna
Vernooij, Meike W.
Smits, Marion
Hunink, M. G. Myriam
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

Mindfulness meditation has been purported to be a beneficial practice for wellbeing. It would therefore be expected that the neurophysiology of mindfulness would reflect this impact on wellbeing. However, investigations of the effects of mindfulness have generated mixed reports of increases, decreases, as well as no differences in EEG oscillations in comparison with a resting state and a variety of tasks. We have performed a systematic review of EEG studies of mindfulness meditation in order to determine any common effects and to identify factors which may impact on the effects.

Author(s): 
Lomas, Tim
Ivtzan, Itai
Fu, Cynthia H. Y.
Publication Title: 
Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society

One fundamental question that is still not resolved is whether acupuncture needles must be inserted in specific points to have their greatest effects. In the majority of large RCTs recently conducted in Germany, acupuncture was significantly more effective than doing nothing but not than sham acupuncture. Only for one study of chronic knee pain was acupuncture superior to sham. Brain imaging with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) may be helpful but is still in its early stages.

Author(s): 
Campbell, Anthony
Publication Title: 
Scientific Reports

Assessment of hypnotic susceptibility is usually obtained through the application of psychological instruments. A satisfying classification obtained through quantitative measures is still missing, although it would be very useful for both diagnostic and clinical purposes. Aiming at investigating the relationship between the cortical brain activity and the hypnotic susceptibility level, we propose the combined use of two methodologies - Recurrence Quantification Analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis - both inherited from nonlinear dynamics.

Author(s): 
Chiarucci, Riccardo
Madeo, Dario
Loffredo, Maria I.
Castellani, Eleonora
Santarcangelo, Enrica L.
Mocenni, Chiara
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

In the last decade, functional brain imaging techniques ranging from fMRI to PET to EEG have added to understanding the mechanisms involved in cognitive, affective, and motoric processes. More recently, as demonstrated by papers in a variety of neuroscience journals, the hypnotic experience and its modulation of critical human processes such as pain have added hypnotic procedures to the experimental techniques available for the neuroscience community.

Author(s): 
Ray, William J.
Oathes, Desmond
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Three papers of special interest to researchers and clinicians alike have recently appeared in the general scientific and medical literatures. Two of these papers are original research studies that employ brain-imaging technologies, one using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), the other position emission tomography (PET). A third paper is a comprehensive review of the empirical findings on the clinical use of hypnosis in pediatric oncology.

Author(s): 
Nash, Michael R.

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