Many fundamental questions on aging are still unanswered or are under intense debate. These questions are frequently not addressable by examining a single gene or a single pathway, but can best be addressed at the systems level. Here we examined the modular structure of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks during fruitfly and human brain aging. In both networks, there are two modules associated with the cellular proliferation to differentiation temporal switch that display opposite aging-related changes in expression.
In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in unsaturated essential fatty acids as they form the framework for the organism's cell membranes, particularly the neurones in the brain, are involved in the energy-transformation process, regulate the information flows between cells.
Diet restriction of rodents during adult life is known to cause an increased life span. It has been hypothesised that this increase may be related to effects on the anti-oxidant defence systems. However, it has been suggested that undernutrition during the gestation and pre-weaning may reduce their life span as it is known to have other deleterious effects on a rodent's growth and development.
Tibetan medicine integrates diet, lifestyle, herbs, and accessory therapies to increase health and longevity. A comparison of the three humor theory of Tibetan medicine and the three thermodynamic phase properties of myelin lipids exemplifies how integrating medical systems can increase understanding of complex chronic disabling conditions.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
The onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases superimposed on a declining nervous system could enhance the motor and cognitive behavioral deficits that normally occur in senescence. It is likely that, in cases of severe deficits in memory or motor function, hospitalization and/or custodial care would be a likely outcome. This means that unless some way is found to reduce these age-related decrements in neuronal function, health care costs will continue to rise exponentially. Applying molecular biological approaches to slow aging in the human condition may be years away.
Oxidative stress is a prominent feature of Huntington's disease (HD) due to mitochondrial dysfunction and the ensuing overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This phenomenon ultimately contributes to cognitive and motor impairment, as well as brain pathology, especially in the striatum. Targeting the transcription of the endogenous antioxidant machinery could be a promising therapeutic approach. The NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway is an important pathway involved in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
BACKGROUND: Aging is a complex multifactorial process characterized by accumulation of deleterious changes in cells and tissues, progressive deterioration of structural integrity and physiological function across multiple organ systems, and increased risk of death. METHODS: We conducted a review of the scientific literature on the relationship of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with aging. AGEs are a heterogeneous group of bioactive molecules that are formed by the nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), a member of the Lipocalin family, is the gene most up-regulated with age in the mammalian brain. Its expression strongly correlates with aging-associated neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases. Two homologues of ApoD expressed in the Drosophila brain, Glial Lazarillo (GLaz) and Neural Lazarillo (NLaz), are known to alter longevity in male flies. However, sex differences in the aging process have not been explored so far for these genes.
Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
The author focused on the functional decline of synapses in the brain with aging to understand the underlying mechanisms and to ameliorate the deficits. The first attempt was to unravel the neuronal functions of gangliosides so that gangliosides could be used for enhancing synaptic activity. The second attempt was to elicit the neuronal plasticity in aged animals through enriched environmental stimulation and nutritional intervention. Environmental stimuli were revealed neurochemically and morphologically to develop synapses leading to enhanced cognitive function.