The effects of essential oil of Croton zehntneri (Euphorbiaceae), orally administered were studied on behavioral parameters using rats and mice. The oil suspension did not modify pentobarbital induced-hypnosis, stereotypic behavior, catalepsy and amphetamine-induced hypermotility. The open-field behaviors were decreased and the minimal convulsant dose of pentylenetetrazole was increased.
Rubus brasiliensis hexanic fraction induced anxiolysis in rodents, which was reversed by flumazenil, a specific GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Nogueira et al., 1998a,b). Then, we investigated if this hexanic fraction was able to induce hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effects, and the involvement of GABA(A)-system. The hexanic fraction (50, 100, 150 and 300 mg/kg, vo) was administered to male Swiss mice, 30 min before the tests.
There appears to be no chemical manufacture of antimalarial drugs in Brazil. Technology at the laboratory process level has been developed for chloroquine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine and cycloguanil, but not perfected nor scaled-up, largely for economic reasons and market uncertainty. Development of primaquine has been contracted but it will run into the same difficulty. Manufacturing capacity for sulfadoxine was registered in the SDI by Roche. A project to produce artemisinine and its derivatives is under way at UNICAMP-CPQBA but is hampered by low content in the plant.
Revista Da Sociedade Brasileira De Medicina Tropical
We evaluated the clinical and therapeutic response to artesunate retocaps in 32 children admitted to the Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas (Amazon Foundation of Tropical Medicine) with clinical characteristics of moderate and severe malaria. Of these, 29 were infected with P. falciparum and 3 with P. vivax. They improved clinically 24 hours after the beginning of therapy, with 33. 3% of patients without fever, and after 48 hours, 77.2% of the children had no fever. The monitoring of asexual forms of the parasites showed that on D2 (day 2 of treatment) 58.6% of children with P.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
This randomized, open-label study compared a three-day, six-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine with a five-day, 19-dose regimen of quinine-doxycycline for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the western Amazon region of Brazil. All patients remained hospitalized during their treatment and the study assessments were scheduled daily from the start of treatment (day 0) through day 6. By day 3, the percentage of infected patients was 0% in the artemether-lumefantrine group and 48.8% in the quinine-doxycycline group.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of artesunate (ATN) and artemether (ATH) against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Brazilian Amazon state of Pará and to search for mutations and/or altered copy numbers in the putative resistance-associated pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfATPase6 genes. METHODS: In vitro efficacy of ATN and ATH was successfully measured in 56 freshly collected P. falciparum isolates, using a conventional WHO microtest with minor modifications. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the same isolates were inspected using DNA sequencing and/or PCR-RFLP.