BACKGROUND: This study was performed to better understand the genetic diversity of known polymorphisms in pfatpase6 and pfmdr1 genes before the introduction of ACT in Brazil, in order to get a genotypic snapshot of Plasmodium falciparum parasites that may be used as baseline reference for future studies. METHODS: Parasites from P. falciparum samples collected in 2002, 2004 and 2006-2007 were genotyped using PCR and DNA sequencing at codons 86, 130, 184, 1034, 1042, 1109 and 1246 for pfmdr1 gene, and 243, 263, 402, 431, 623, 630, 639, 683, 716, 776, 769 and 771 for pfatpase6 gene.
BACKGROUND: To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. METHODS: Crude extract (CE) was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
The effect of antimalarial drug selection on pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from two distinct geographical locations was determined in 70 and 18 P. falciparum isolates from Nigeria and Brazil, respectively, using nested polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing approaches. All isolates from Brazil and 72% from Nigeria harbored the mutant SVMNT and CVIET pfcrt haplotype, respectively. The pfcrt CVMNT haplotype was also observed in (7%) of the Nigerian samples.
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drug resistance has emerged as one of the biggest challenges confronting the worldwide effort to control malaria. The appearance of chloroquine and multi-drug resistance had devastating effects on therapeutic efficacy of former first-line agents. Artemisinin has proven to be an excellent therapeutic alternative to fill the void in chemotherapeutic options left by resistance mechanisms. At the time of introduction, no resistance to artemisinins had been recorded, and artemisinins demonstrated excellent parasite reduction rates.
BACKGROUND: Studies in South-East Asia have suggested that early diagnosis and treatment with artesunate (AS) and mefloquine (MQ) combination therapy may reduce the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and the progression of MQ resistance. METHODS: The effectiveness of a fixed-dose combination of AS and MQ (ASMQ) in reducing malaria transmission was tested in isolated communities of the Juruá valley in the Amazon region.Priority municipalities within the Brazilian Legal Amazon area were selected according to pre-specified criteria.
Artemisinin is the active antimalarial compound obtained from the leaves of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are the main drugs used to treat multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum (one of the human malaria parasite species). The in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum K1 and 3d7 strains and field isolates from the state of Amazonas, Brazil, to A. annua infusions (5 g dry leaves in 1 L of boiling water) and the drug standards chloroquine, quinine and artemisinin were evaluated. The A.
BACKGROUND: The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) is a not-for profit organization committed to providing affordable medicines and access to treatments in resource-poor settings. Traditionally drug development has happened "in house" within pharmaceutical companies, with research and development costs ultimately recuperated through drug sales. The development of drugs for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases requires a completely different model that goes beyond the scope of market-driven research and development.
BACKGROUND: Although malaria in Brazil almost exclusively occurs within the boundaries of the Amazon Region, some concerns are raised regarding imported malaria to non-endemic areas of the country, notably increased incidence of complications due to delayed diagnoses. However, although imported malaria in Brazil represents a major health problem, only a few studies have addressed this subject.
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial resistance in Plasmodium falciparum remains an obstacle for malaria control. Resistance-associated genes were analysed in Brazilian samples over four decades to evaluate the impact of different treatment regimens on the parasite genetic profile. METHODS: Samples were collected on filter paper from patients infected in the Amazon region from 1984 to 2011. DNA was extracted with Chelex® 100 and monoinfection confirmed by PCR. SNPs in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr and pfdhps genes were assessed by PCR-RFLP.