Twenty-eight commercial samples of Fructus Chebulae were collected from local herbal markets in Taiwan and were determined to have been derived from Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia chebula Retz. var. parviflora Thwaites, which differ markedly in external appearance. Ten tannin-related constituents [gallic acid (1), chebulic acid (2), punicalagin (4), chebulanin (7), corilagin (8), neochebulinic acid (9), ellagic acid (11), chebulagic acid (12), chebulinic acid (13) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (14)] were identified and quantified by HPLC. Samples derived from T.
Strains of Caenorhabditis elegans mutant for clk-1 exhibit a 20-40% increase in mean lifespan. clk-1 encodes a mitochondrial protein thought to be either an enzyme or regulatory molecule acting within the ubiquinone biosynthesis pathway. Here CLK-1 is shown to be related to the ubiquinol oxidase, alternative oxidase, and belong to the functionally diverse di-iron-carboxylate protein family which includes bacterioferritin and methane mono-oxygenase.
Previous studies showed that S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) prevented MDB formation and the hypomethylation of histones induced by DDC feeding. These results suggest that formation of MDBs is an epigenetic phenomenon. To further test this theory, drug-primed mice were fed the methyl donor, betaine, together with DDC, which was refed for 7 days. Betaine significantly reduced MDB formation, decreased the liver/body weight ratio and decreased the number of FAT10 positive liver cells when they proliferate in response to DDC refeeding.
Wild pansy (Viola tricolor L.) has a history in folk medicine of helping respiratory problems such as bronchitis, asthma, and cold symptoms. The drugs and extracts are prepared from raw material of pansy; it is a component of some prepared antitussives, cholagogues, dermatological medicines, roborants and tonics, alternatives, and anti-phlebitis remedies. Wild pansy is indigenous to or naturalized in large parts of Europe and the Middle East as far as Central Asia, also found through the United States.