Cecum

Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs, namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted in ethanol together and individually.

Author(s): 
Sohni, Y. R.
Kaimal, P.
Bhatt, R. M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

We examined the effect of modulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity in a murine model of cecal ligation and puncture-induced polymicrobial sepsis. Inhibition of PI3K activity with wortmannin increased serum cytokine levels and decreased survival time in septic mice. We have reported that an immunomodulator, glucan phosphate, induces protection in murine polymicrobial sepsis. We observed that glucan stimulated tissue PI3K activity, which positively correlated with increased survival in septic mice.

Author(s): 
Williams, David L.
Li, Chuanfu
Ha, Tuanzhu
Ozment-Skelton, Tammy
Kalbfleisch, John H.
Preiszner, Johanna
Brooks, Lynne
Breuel, Kevin
Schweitzer, John B.
Publication Title: 
Shock (Augusta, Ga.)

Strategies are needed to reverse the immune cell hyporesponsiveness and prevent bacterial overgrowth associated with high mortality rates in septic patients. Adenosine signaling may be mediating immunosuppressive signals within the inflammatory microenvironment that are safeguarding bacteria by rendering immune cells hyporesponsive. We examined A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR)-mediated immune responses in a chronic model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis using both wild-type (WT) and A2AR knockout (KO) mice.

Author(s): 
Belikoff, Bryan
Hatfield, Stephen
Sitkovsky, Michail
Remick, Daniel G.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Antimicrobial treatment strategies must improve to reduce the high mortality rates in septic patients. In noninfectious models of acute inflammation, activation of A2B adenosine receptors (A2BR) in extracellular adenosine-rich microenvironments causes immunosuppression. We examined A2BR in antibacterial responses in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Antagonism of A2BR significantly increased survival, enhanced bacterial phagocytosis, and decreased IL-6 and MIP-2 (a CXC chemokine) levels after CLP in outbred (ICR/CD-1) mice.

Author(s): 
Belikoff, Bryan G.
Hatfield, Stephen
Georgiev, Peter
Ohta, Akio
Lukashev, Dmitriy
Buras, Jon A.
Remick, Daniel G.
Sitkovsky, Michail
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology

Vascular leakage in multiple organs is a characteristic pathological change in sepsis. Our recent study revealed that ascorbate protects endothelial barrier function in microvascular endothelial cell monolayers through inhibiting serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activation (Han M, Pendem S, Teh SL, Sukumaran DK, Wu F, Wilson JX. Free Radic Biol Med 48: 128-135, 2010). The present study addressed the mechanism of protection by ascorbate against vascular leakage in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic peritonitis in mice.

Author(s): 
Zhou, Gang
Kamenos, George
Pendem, Suresh
Wilson, John X.
Wu, Feng
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

OBJECTIVES: The stationary phase of Clostridium difficile, which is primarily responsible for diarrhoeal symptoms, is refractory to antibiotic killing. We investigated whether disrupting the functions of the clostridial membrane is an approach to control C. difficile infections by promptly removing growing and non-growing cells. METHODS: The bactericidal activities of various membrane-active agents were determined against C. difficile logarithmic-phase and stationary-phase cultures and compared with known antibiotics.

Author(s): 
Wu, Xiaoqian
Cherian, Philip T.
Lee, Richard E.
Hurdle, Julian G.
Publication Title: 
Disease Models & Mechanisms

Post-operative increases in circulating bile acids have been suggested to contribute to the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery; however, their mechanistic contributions remain undefined. We have previously reported that ileal interposition (IT) surgery delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in UCD-T2DM rats and increases circulating bile acids, independently of effects on energy intake or body weight. Therefore, we investigated potential mechanisms by which post-operative increases in circulating bile acids improve glucose homeostasis after IT surgery.

Author(s): 
Cummings, Bethany P.
Bettaieb, Ahmed
Graham, James L.
Kim, Jaehyoung
Ma, Fangrui
Shibata, Noreene
Stanhope, Kimber L.
Giulivi, Cecilia
Hansen, Frederik
Jelsing, Jacob
Vrang, Niels
Kowala, Mark
Chouinard, Michael L.
Haj, Fawaz G.
Havel, Peter J.
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