Homeopathy is a controversial system of care that is practiced extensively in Europe, Asia, and South America primarily for functional and minor ailments. In this review, published studies on homeopathic remedies and cancer were examined. Data were obtained from multiple research disciplines, ranging from basic science to scientifically valid animal and clinical studies. The data from a few laboratory experiments in cancer models show some beneficial effect of homeopathic remedies on selected cancer cell lines. However, in the clinical arena, this effect is not clear.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Terminalia chebula has an esteemed origin in Indian mythology; its fruits are used to treat many diseases such as digestive, diabetes, colic pain, chronic cough, sore throat, asthma, etc. AIM OF THE STUDY: The water or ethanolic extracts of the fruits were reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-protector properties. The present study is to isolate and identify the compounds that inhibit COX and 5-LOX, the key enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis.
The aqueous extract of galls from Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) was fractionated on Diaion and refractionated on octadecyl silica column. Six phenolic compounds were isolated and identified as gallic acid (1), punicalagin (2), isoterchebulin (3), 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose (4), chebulagic acid (5) and chebulinic acid (6). All of the compounds showed stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and melanin inhibitory activities than ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, ?-tocopherol, arbutin and kojic acid, the reference compounds.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Due to its high global prevalence and uprising resistance to available antibiotics, efforts are now directed to identify alternative source to treat and prevent associated disorders.
Nine phenolic compounds, including two phenolic carboxylic acids, 1 and 2, seven hydrolyzable tannins, 3-9, eight triterpenoids, including four oleanane-type triterpene acids, 10-13, and four of their glucosides, 14-17, isolated from a MeOH extract of the gall of Terminalia chebula Retz.
BACKGROUND: Plants are the valuable source of natural products with important medicinal properties. Most of the approved anti cancer drugs have a natural product origin or are natural products. Retinoblastoma is the most common ocular cancer of children. Although chemotherapy is the preferred mode of therapy, a successful treatment for retinoblastoma requires enucleation. Chebulagic acid (CA) from Terminalia chebula was shown to have anti-proliferative properties in the studies on cancerous cell lines.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Telomere is the repetitive DNA sequence at the end of chromosomes, which shortens progressively with cell division and limits the replicative potential of normal human somatic cells. L-carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide, has been reported to delay the replicative senescence, and extend the lifespan of cultured human diploid fibroblasts. In this work, we studied the effect of carnosine on the telomeric DNA of cultured human fetal lung fibroblast cells.
The search for effective treatments that prevent oxidative stress associated with premature ageing and neurodegenerative diseases is an important area of neurochemical research. As age- and disease-related oxidative stress is frequently associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, amphiphilic antioxidant agents of high stability and selectivity that target these organelles can provide on-site protection.
Silent information regulator two ortholog 1 (SIRT1) is the human ortholog of the yeast sir2 protein; one of the most important regulators of lifespan extension by caloric restriction in several organisms. Dietary polyphenols, abundant in vegetables, fruits, cereals, wine and tea, were reported to stimulate the deacetylase activity of recombinant SIRT1 protein and could therefore be potential regulators of aging associated processes.
The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) regulates gene silencing in yeast and promotes lifespan extension during caloric restriction. The mammalian homologue of Sir2 (SirT1) regulates p53, NF-kappaB and Forkhead transcription factors, and is implicated in stress response. This report shows that the cell-cycle and apoptosis regulator E2F1 induces SirT1 expression at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, SirT1 binds to E2F1 and inhibits E2F1 activities, forming a negative feedback loop.