Cell Movement

Publication Title: 
Trends in Neurosciences

Our understanding of human disorders that affect higher cognitive functions has greatly advanced in recent decades, and over 20 genes associated with non-syndromic mental retardation have been identified during the past 15 years. However, proteins encoded by "cognition genes" have such diverse neurodevelopmental functions that delineating specific pathogenetic pathways still poses a tremendous challenge.

Author(s): 
Persico, Antonio M.
Bourgeron, Thomas
Publication Title: 
Trends in genetics: TIG

Transcriptional mechanisms mediated by the binding of transcription factors (TFs) to cis-acting regulatory elements (CREs) in DNA play crucial roles in directing gene expression. While TFs have been extensively studied, less effort has gone towards the identification and functional characterization of CREs and associated epigenetic modulation. However, owing to methodological and analytical advances, more comprehensive studies of regulatory elements and mechanisms are now possible.

Author(s): 
Shibata, Mikihito
Gulden, Forrest O.
Sestan, Nenad
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Microglial activation plays an important role in neuroinflammation, which contributes to neuronal damage, and inhibition of microglial activation may have therapeutic benefits that could alleviate the progression of neurodegeneration. Recent studies have indicated that the antimalarial agent artemisinin has the ability to inhibit NF-?B activation. In this study, the inhibitory effects of artemisinin on the production of proinflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary microglia.

Author(s): 
Zhu, Cansheng
Xiong, Zhaojun
Chen, Xiaohong
Peng, Fuhua
Hu, Xueqiang
Chen, Yanming
Wang, Qing
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Artemether is the derivative extracted from Chinese traditional herb and originally used for malaria. Artemether also has potential therapeutic effects against tumors. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is an important cell surface adhesion molecule associated with malignancy of gliomas. In this work, we investigated the role and mechanism of artemether combined with shRNA interference of VCAM-1 (shRNA-VCAM-1) on the migration, invasion and apoptosis of glioma cells.

Author(s): 
Wang, Ying-Bin
Hu, Yi
Li, Zhen
Wang, Ping
Xue, Yi-Xue
Yao, Yi-Long
Yu, Bo
Liu, Yun-Hui
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Our previous studies have shown that z-guggulsterone, a constituent of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells by causing apoptosis. We now report a novel response to z-guggulsterone involving the inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The z-guggulsterone treatment inhibited capillary-like tube formation (in vitro neovascularization) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and migration by HUVEC and DU145 human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Dong
Singh, Shivendra V.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

The role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis is well established. Identification of a small molecule that blocks tumor angiogenesis and is safe and affordable has been a challenge in drug development. In this study, we showed that acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA), an active component from an Ayurvedic medicinal plant (Boswellia serrata), could strongly inhibit tumor angiogenesis. AKBA suppressed tumor growth in the human prostate tumor xenograft mice treated daily (10 mg/kg AKBA) after solid tumors reached approximately 100 mm(3) (n = 5).

Author(s): 
Pang, Xiufeng
Yi, Zhengfang
Zhang, Xiaoli
Sung, Bokyung
Qu, Weijing
Lian, Xiaoyuan
Aggarwal, Bharat B.
Liu, Mingyao
Publication Title: 
Carcinogenesis

We have shown previously that withaferin A (WA), a promising anticancer constituent of Ayurvedic medicine plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells in culture and in vivo in association with apoptosis induction. The present study builds on these observations and demonstrates that WA inhibits constitutive as well as interleukin-6 (IL-6)-inducible activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is an oncogenic transcription factor activated in many human malignancies including breast cancer.

Author(s): 
Lee, Joomin
Hahm, Eun-Ryeong
Singh, Shivendra V.
Publication Title: 
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

Ayurvedic medicine plants continue to draw attention for the discovery of novel anticancer agents. Withaferin A (WA) is one such small-molecule constituent of the ayurvedic medicine plant Withania somnifera with efficacy against cultured and xenografted human breast cancer cells. However, the mechanism underlying anticancer effect of WA is not fully understood. This study was undertaken to determine the role of Notch signaling in anticancer effects of WA using human breast cancer cells as a model. Notably, Notch signaling is often hyperactive in human breast cancers.

Author(s): 
Lee, Joomin
Sehrawat, Anuradha
Singh, Shivendra V.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors and their heterogeneity and complexity often renders them non responsive to various conventional treatments. Search for herbal products having potential anti-cancer activity is an active area of research in the Indian traditional system of medicine i.e., Ayurveda. Tinospora cordifolia, also named as 'heavenly elixir' is used in various ayurvedic decoctions as panacea to treat several body ailments.

Author(s): 
Mishra, Rachana
Kaur, Gurcharan
Publication Title: 
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Our previous studies have shown that z-guggulsterone, a constituent of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer cells by causing apoptosis. We now report a novel response to z-guggulsterone involving the inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. The z-guggulsterone treatment inhibited capillary-like tube formation (in vitro neovascularization) by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and migration by HUVEC and DU145 human prostate cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Dong
Singh, Shivendra V.

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