BACKGROUND: Exposure to ozone activates innate immune function and causes neutrophilic (PMN) airway inflammation that in some individuals is robustly elevated. The interplay between immuno-inflammatory function and genomic signaling in those with heightened inflammatory responsiveness to ozone is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: Determine baseline predictors and post exposure discriminators for the immuno-inflammatory response to ozone in inflammatory responsive adult volunteers.
Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone, but transit of malignant cells across the bone marrow endothelium (BMEC) remains a poorly understood step in metastasis. Prostate cancer cells roll on E-selectin(+) BMEC through E-selectin ligand-binding interactions under shear flow, and prostate cancer cells exhibit firm adhesion to BMEC via β1, β4, and αVβ3 integrins in static assays. However, whether these discrete prostate cancer cell-BMEC adhesive contacts culminate in cooperative, step-wise transendothelial migration into bone is not known.
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid Ags presented by the MHC class I-related protein CD1d. Activation of iNKT cells with glycolipid Ags, such as the marine sponge-derived reagent α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), results in the rapid production of a variety of cytokines and activation of many other immune cell types.
In this study we transplanted bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) or microglia into rats that had undergone permanent cerebral ischemia and observed the distribution or morphology of transplanted cells in vivo. In addition, we compared the effects of BM-MNCs and microglia on infarct volume, brain water content, and functional outcome after permanent cerebral ischemia. BM-MNCs and microglia were obtained from femur and brain, respectively, of newborn rats.
BACKGROUND: In fibrotic lung diseases, expression of caveolin-1 is decreased in fibroblasts and monocytes. The effects of this deficiency are reversed by treating cells or animals with the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSD, amino acids 82-101 of caveolin-1) which compensates for the lack of caveolin-1. Here we compare the function of CSD subdomains (Cav-A, Cav-B, Cav-C, Cav-AB, and Cav-BC) and mutated versions of CSD (F92A and T90A/T91A/F92A).
Though clinicians can predict which patients are at risk for developing metastases, traditional therapies often prove ineffective and metastatic disease is the primary cause of cancer patient death; therefore, there is a need to develop anti-metastatic therapies that can be administered over long durations to specifically inhibit the motility of cancer cells. Withaniasomnifera root extracts (WRE) have anti-proliferative activity and the active component, Withaferin A, inhibits the pro-metastatic protein, vimentin.
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer affecting women in the United States and metastatic breast cancer is the leading cause of death. The role estradiol plays in ER-positive BC is well-documented, but the way it contributes to ER-negative BC remains unclear. In the present study, we utilized an experimental model of BC metastasis into lung by injecting ER-negative murine 4T1 cells into mice via the lateral tail vein.
Metastasis of colon cancer cells increases the risk of colon cancer mortality. We have recently shown that American ginseng prevents colon cancer, and a Hexane extract of American Ginseng (HAG) has particularly potent anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Dysregulated microRNA (miR) expression has been observed in several disease conditions including colon cancer. Using global miR expression profiling, we observed increased miR-29b in colon cancer cells following exposure to HAG.
BACKGROUND: The interaction between human prostate cancer (PCa) cells and bone marrow (BM) endothelium follows a rolling-and-adhesion cascade mediated by E-selectin ligand (ESL): E-selectin. This adhesion is enabled by elevated expression of α-1,3-fucosyltransferases (FTs), enzymes responsible for ESL-mediated bone metastasis in humans. In contrast, the incidence of bone metastasis in mice is rare. METHODS: FT 3, 6 and 7 were overexpressed in mouse PCa cells. The rolling cell number, cell-rolling velocity and transendothelial migration were characterised in vitro.
Gonolobus condurango plant extract is used as an anticancer drug in some traditional systems of medicine including homeopathy, but it apparently lacks any scientific validation. Further, no detailed study is available to suggest whether condurango-glycoside-A (CGA), a major ingredient of condurango serves as a potent anticancer compound. Therefore, we investigated apoptosis-inducing ability of CGA against cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa).