Chlorides

Publication Title: 
Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world's population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum, which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits.

Author(s): 
Amit, A.
Saxena, V. S.
Pratibha, N.
D'Souza, P.
Bagchi, M.
Bagchi, D.
Stohs, S. J.
Publication Title: 
Phytochemical analysis: PCA

Triphala is an anti-oxidant-rich herbal formulation containing fruits of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and T. belerica in equal proportions. The preparation is frequently used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diseases such as anaemia, jaundice, constipation, asthma, fever and chronic ulcers. Anti-mutagenic effects of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from Triphala have been reported, thus indicating that the phenols present in the formulation might be responsible for its therapeutic efficacy.

Author(s): 
Singh, D. P.
Govindarajan, R.
Rawat, A. K. S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

We demonstrated recently that low concentrations of ethanol enhanced the muscimol-stimulated chloride influx in cerebellar membranes from long sleep (LS-ethanol sensitive) mice, but had no effect on membranes from short sleep (SS-ethanol resistant) mice. The LS and SS were selected from a heterogeneous stock (HS) of mice for differential sensitivity to the hypnotic effects of ethanol as measured by the duration of the loss of the righting reflex (sleep time). In the present study, we tested 100 HS for ethanol sleep time.

Author(s): 
Allan, A. M.
Spuhler, K. P.
Harris, R. A.
Publication Title: 
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

Several findings suggest that barbiturates and alcohol produce their sedative effects through a common neural and possibly a common genetic mechanism. We tested this hypothesis by examining the correlation between ethanol and pentobarbital sedative effects in individual animals from a genetically heterogeneous population. The duration of pentobarbital-induced hypnosis (sleep-time) was unrelated to the sleep-time produced by ethanol in heterogeneous stock (HS) mice.

Author(s): 
Allan, A. M.
Harris, R. A.
Publication Title: 
Ciba Foundation Symposium

Certain endogenous steroids are modulators of GABAA receptors. Tetrahydroprogesterone (THP, 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one) and tetrahydrodeoxy-corticosterone (THDOC, 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha, 21-diol-20-one) behave as allosteric agonists of GABAA receptors whereas pregnenolone sulphate acts as an antagonist. THP and THDOC modulate ligand binding to GABAA receptors like barbiturates; they potentiate binding of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and the benzodiazepine flunitrazepam and they allosterically inhibit binding of the convulsant t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate.

Author(s): 
Majewska, M. D.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

GABA(A) receptors have been implicated in mediating several acute effects of ethanol including anxiolysis, ataxia, sedation/hypnosis, and anticonvulsant activity. Ethanol sensitivity of neurons has been associated with expression of alpha1 subunit-containing receptors. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of alpha1 subunit containing receptors to ethanol responses in comparison to neurosteroids and other anesthetics using GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit knockout mice.

Author(s): 
Kralic, J. E.
Wheeler, M.
Renzi, K.
Ferguson, C.
O'Buckley, T. K.
Grobin, A. C.
Morrow, A. L.
Homanics, G. E.
Publication Title: 
Kidney International

BACKGROUND: Sodium artesunate is currently used in malaria treatment. Adverse effects of this drug have not been described, probably because they cannot be differentiated from malaria-related effects. METHODS: The effects on renal function of an acute infusion of sodium artesunate (12 mg/kg body weight) were studied in the rat with clearance techniques. We also evaluate the effect of sodium artesunate on chloride lumen-bath flux (Cl Jlb) in the isolated thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (TALH) microperfused in vitro.

Author(s): 
Campos, S. B.
Rouch, L. H.
Seguro, A. C.
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Fruits of Helicteres isora Linn., commonly called Murudsheng in India, are usually prescribed in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, especially in Ayurveda, for a variety of intestinal complaints. The antispasmodic activity was checked in vitro on guinea-pig ileum against three spasmogens, acetylcholine, histamine and barium chloride. The IC(50) for each was determined. The activity was compared with standard antispasmodic agents, atropine and diphenhydramine hydrochloride.

Author(s): 
Pohocha, N.
Grampurohit, N. D.
Publication Title: 
Neurotoxicology

Bacopa monniera is a nerve tonic used extensively in traditional Indian medicinal system "Ayurveda". Reports regarding its various antioxidative, adaptogenic and memory enhancing roles have already appeared in the last few decades. In the present study, aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) was used to generate neurotoxicity. We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of Bacopa extract against aluminium-induced changes in peroxidative products, such as thio-barbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) and protein carbonyl contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity.

Author(s): 
Jyoti, Amar
Sharma, Deepak
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

Bacopa monniera is a perennial herb, and is used as a nerve tonic in äyurveda, a traditional medicinal system in India. Aluminium-induced neurotoxicity is well known and different salts of aluminium have been reported to accelerate oxidative damage to biomolecules like lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether Bacopa monniera could potentially inhibit aluminium toxicity in the cerebral cortex. Male Wister rats (8 months old) were administered with AlCl(3) orally at a dose of 50mg/kg/day in drinking water for 1 month.

Author(s): 
Jyoti, Amar
Sethi, Pallavi
Sharma, Deepak

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