Cholagogues and Choleretics

Publication Title: 
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

PURPOSE: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in blindness for which there is no current treatment. Although the members of the family of RP diseases differ in etiology, their outcomes are the same: apoptosis of rods and then by cones. Recently, the bile acid tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been shown to have antiapoptotic properties in neurodegenerative diseases, including those of the retina.

Author(s): 
Phillips, M. Joe
Walker, Tiffany A.
Choi, Hee-Young
Faulkner, Amanda E.
Kim, Moon K.
Sidney, Sheree S.
Boyd, Amber P.
Nickerson, John M.
Boatright, Jeffrey H.
Pardue, Machelle T.
Publication Title: 
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)

Glutathione (GSH) provides important antioxidant defense and regulates multiple critical processes including fibrogenesis. There are conflicting literature studies regarding changes in GSH during cholestasis. Here we examined changes in the GSH synthetic enzymes during bile duct ligation (BDL) in mice and how treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and/or S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) affects the expression of these enzymes and liver injury.

Author(s): 
Yang, Heping
Ramani, Komal
Xia, Meng
Ko, Kwang Suk
Li, Tony W. H.
Oh, Pilsoo
Li, Jiaping
Lu, Shelly C.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Pharmacology

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hyperbilirubinaemia and cholestasis are two major forms of liver abnormality. The Chinese herb Yin Chin has been used for thousands of years to treat liver dysfunctions. In mice, this herb and its principal ingredient scoparone were found to accelerate the clearance of bilirubin accompanied by the induction of uridine diphosphate-5'-glucuronosyltransferase-1A1 (UGT1A1), a bilirubin processing enzyme. The aim of this study was to determine whether scoparone induces the expression of human UGT1A1.

Author(s): 
Yang, Dongfang
Yang, Jian
Shi, Deshi
Deng, Ruitang
Yan, Bingfang
Publication Title: 
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao = Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and its treatment by integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine. METHODS: 16 PBC patients were observed. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was used in the dose of 13 to 15 mg.kg(-1).d(-1), with some traditional Chinese herb prescription. Results (1) The proportion of women to men was 15:1, the mean age was 52.5 years. AMA-M2 was positive in 14 subjects (87.5%). Biliary tract enzymes and ESR were elevated in all subjects. The ratio of hypercholesterolemia (CHOL) and abnormality in IgM was high (62.5%).

Author(s): 
Jiang, Jian
He, Miao
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine

Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Modern investigations showed that it has a wide range of pharmacological actions with little toxicological side effect and the pure compounds have been used for curing hepatic and biliary disorders for decades. However, extensive consumption of bear bile made bears endangered species. In the 1980's, bear farming was established in China to extract bear bile from living bears with "Free-dripping Fistula Technique".

Author(s): 
Feng, Yibin
Siu, Kayu
Wang, Ning
Ng, Kwan-Ming
Tsao, Sai-Wah
Nagamatsu, Tadashi
Tong, Yao
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common causes of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in China, which requires renal replacement therapy. Recent investigations have suggested an essential role of podocyte injury in the initial stage of DN. This study investigated the potential therapeutic role of genipin, an active extract from a traditional Chinese medicine, on progression of DN in diabetic mice induced by intraperitoneally injection of streptozocin (STZ).

Author(s): 
Qiu, Wenjing
Zhou, Yang
Jiang, Lei
Fang, Li
Chen, Lu
Su, Weifang
Tan, Ruoyun
Zhang, Chen-yu
Han, Xiao
Yang, Junwei
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