Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, soluble IL-6 receptor, soluble gp130, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and ciliary neutrophic factor (CNTF) were analyzed in 32 patients with severe malaria. Ten had renal failure, 8 had cerebral malaria, and 14 had other causes of severity. Before treatment, the IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor plasma levels were significantly higher in persons with cerebral malaria or renal failure than in other groups (P<.01 for both). After initiation of therapy, IL-6 levels dropped within 24 h, but soluble IL-6 receptor levels increased.
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a promyelinating trophic factor, and the mechanisms by which CNTF expression could be increased in the brain are poorly understood. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used analgesics. Interestingly, aspirin increased mRNA and protein expression of CNTF in primary mouse and human astrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Aspirin induced the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) but not protein kinase C (PKC). H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, abrogated aspirin-induced expression of CNTF.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Obesity plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We therefore examined the effects of a modified form of ciliary neurotrophic factor [Axokine, which is hereafter referred to as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)Ax15], which uses a leptin-like mechanism to reduce body weight, in the db/db murine model of type 2 diabetes. In previous studies, weight loss produced by CNTF treatment could largely be attributed to its effects on food intake.