Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest in which normal cells at the end of their lifespan fail to enter into DNA synthesis upon serum or growth factor stimulation. We examined whether proteins required for G1/S cell cycle progression were irreversibly down-regulated in senescent human fibroblasts. Both the 44- and 42-kDa forms of the MAP-kinase protein were expressed at similar levels in young and senescent cells.
Replicative senescence is thought to be a significant barrier to human tumorigenesis, which in human fibroblasts, and many other cell types, can be overcome experimentally by combined loss of function of p53 and Rb 'pathways'. To avoid the confounding pleiotropic effects of HPVE7 frequently used in such studies, here we have employed retroviral vectors over-expressing CDK4 or CDK6 as a more representative model of naturally-occurring mutations targeting the Rb pathway.
Terminally differentiated neutrophils are short-lived but the key effector cells of the innate immune response, and have a prominent role in the pathogenesis and propagation of many inflammatory diseases. Delayed apoptosis, which is responsible for their extended longevity, is critically dependent on a balance of intracellular survival versus pro-apoptotic proteins. Here, we elucidate the mechanism by which the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor drugs such as R-roscovitine and DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole) mediate neutrophil apoptosis.
Chromone alkaloids and flavoalkaloids are an important group of natural products possessing promising medicinal properties. A chromone alkaloid rohitukine is a major bioactive chemical constituent of plant Dysoxylum binectariferum (Meliaceae) Hook. which is phylogenetically related to the Ayurvedic plant, D. malabaricum Bedd. used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This chromone alkaloid led to discovery of two synthetic flavoalkaloids: flavopiridol (Sanofi) and P-276-00 (Piramal) which have reached to advanced stages of clinical development for cancer treatment.
Frontiers in Bioscience: A Journal and Virtual Library
The development of cancer is associated with disorders in the regulation of the cell cycle. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the known sequence of events that regulate cell cycle progression with an emphasis on the checkpoints and the mechanisms cell employ to insure DNA stability in the face of genotoxic stress. Key transitions in the cell cycle are regulated by the activities of various protein kinase complexes composed of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) molecules.
Piceatannol, a naturally occurring analog of resveratrol, was previously identified as the active ingredient in herbal preparations in folk medicine and as an inhibitor of p72(Syk). We studied the effects of piceatannol on growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell cycle distribution profile of the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2. Growth of Caco-2 and HCT-116 cells was analyzed by crystal violet assay, which demonstrated dose- and time-dependent decreases in cell numbers. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with piceatannol reduced proliferation rate.
The bis-indole indirubin is an active ingredient of Danggui Longhui Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine recipe used in the treatment of chronic diseases such as leukemias. The antitumoral properties of indirubin appear to correlate with their antimitotic effects. Indirubins were recently described as potent (IC(50): 50-100 nm) inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). We report here that indirubins are also powerful inhibitors (IC(50): 5-50 nm) of an evolutionarily related kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3 beta).
Bufalin, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported as a protective factor in many tumors. We therefore investigated the effect of bufalin on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation of cultured rat mesangial cells. The effect of bufalin on cell proliferation and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in cultured rat mesangial cells (MCs) by the methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK)2 and CDK4 kinase assays.
Triptolide is a bioactive ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits diverse biologic properties, including anticancer properties. Among its many putative targets, this compound has been reported to bind to XPB, the largest subunit of general transcription factor TFIIH, and to cause degradation of the largest subunit Rpb1 of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). In this study, we clarify multiple important questions concerning the significance and basis for triptolide action at this core target.