BACKGROUND: Differential coexpression is a change in coexpression between genes that may reflect 'rewiring' of transcriptional networks. It has previously been hypothesized that such changes might be occurring over time in the lifespan of an organism. While both coexpression and differential expression of genes have been previously studied in life stage change or aging, differential coexpression has not. Generalizing differential coexpression analysis to many time points presents a methodological challenge.
To identify new genetic regulators of cellular aging and senescence, we performed genome-wide comparative RNA profiling with selected human cellular model systems, reflecting replicative senescence, stress-induced premature senescence, and distinct other forms of cellular aging. Gene expression profiles were measured, analyzed, and entered into a newly generated database referred to as the GiSAO database.
Insertions or deletions (indels) of amino acids residues have been recognized as an important source of genetic and structural divergence between paralogous Bcl-2 family members. However, these signature sequences have not so far been extensively investigated amongst orthologous Bcl-2 family proteins. Bcl2l10 is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that has evolved rapidly throughout the vertebrate lineage and which shows conserved abundant expression in eggs and oocytes.
Aging in the world population has increased every year. Superoxide dismutase 2 (Mn-SOD or SOD2) protects against oxidative stress, a main factor influencing cellular longevity. Polymorphisms in SOD2 have been associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder.
Bivariate survival models with discretely distributed frailty based on the major gene concept and applied to the data on related individuals such as twins and sibs can be used to estimate the underlying hazard, the relative risk and the frequency of the longevity allele. To determine the position of the longevity gene, additional genetic markers data are needed. If the action of the longevity allele does not depend on its position in the genome, these two problems can be solved separately using a two-step procedure.
Dietary restriction (DR), limiting nutrient intake from diet without causing malnutrition, delays the aging process and extends lifespan in multiple organisms. The conserved life-extending effect of DR suggests the involvement of fundamental mechanisms, although these remain a subject of debate. To help decipher the life-extending mechanisms of DR, we first compiled a list of genes that if genetically altered disrupt or prevent the life-extending effects of DR. We called these DR-essential genes and identified more than 100 in model organisms such as yeast, worms, flies, and mice.
Histone deactylase enzymes are responsible for the deacetylation of histone tails, and consequently influence gene regulation through their ability to modify chromatin structure surrounding promoter regions. We analyzed the microarray collection of the National Brain Databank to investigate differential expression of these enzymes in the prefrontal cortices of control, schizophrenia and bipolar subjects. HDAC1 expression levels were significantly higher in schizophrenia versus normal subjects.
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are projected to lead the global disease burden within the next decade. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetic- or genetic-mediated dysfunction is frequently present in these disorders. To date, the inheritance patterns have been complicated by the problem of integrating epigenomic and transcriptomic factors that have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, there is a need to build a comprehensive database for storing epigenomic and transcriptomic data relating to psychiatric disorders.