The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Shocking news of robberies committed using hypnosis on bank cashiers, salespeople, or passers-by has sporadically been reported by the media in countries around the world. The first reported episode in Italy dates to the 1950s. Although the phenomenon has been reported in the papers more frequently in recent years, no objective analysis of it has been published in the scientific literature.
Physicians commonly recommend 'placebo treatments', which are not believed to have specific efficacy for the patient's condition. Motivations for placebo treatments include complying with patient expectations and promoting a placebo effect. In this article, we focus on two key empirical questions that must be addressed in order to assess the ethical legitimacy of placebo treatments in clinical practice: 1) do placebo treatments have the potential to produce clinically significant benefit?
Shinrigaku Kenkyu: The Japanese Journal of Psychology
The present study examined the effects of pleasantness expressed in verbal messages on their perceived deceptiveness. The hypothesis was that pleasant messages are perceived as less deceptive than neutral or unpleasant ones. To test the hypothesis, three types of messages were constructed: pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant. Sixty-seven university students answered the questionnaire in which they rated, on seven-point semantic differential scales, perceived deceptiveness in one of the three types of messages.
The relationships among deception, power, and self-differentiation in college students' romantic relationships were explored. As hypothesized, lower total deception scores were found to significantly predict higher self-differentiation scores. Both men and women reported that men held significantly more power in their relationships. A secondary analysis revealed that men were significantly more likely than women to indicate they would be inclined to use deceptive strategies.
Although a number of studies have explored the ways that men and women romantically attract mates, almost no research exists on the special tactics people use when already in a relationship and trying to attract someone new--a process known as mate poaching enticement. In Study 1, the authors investigated the tactics people use to entice others into making mate poaching attempts. Enticement tactic effectiveness conformed to evolutionary-predicted patterns across sex and temporal context. In Study 2, the authors examined the tactics men and women use to disguise mate poaching enticement.
The similarities between measures of self-evaluation and self-deception are reviewed, and a method for discriminating between them is proposed, using personality profiles and relations to ability and achievement. Across two samples, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and Tafarodi's measures of self-evaluation were used to demonstrate that the RSES and Self-Liking are more similar to Self-Deceptive Enhancement than is self-competence. Further, Self-Competence is uniquely associated with cognitive ability and both academic and creative achievement.
Building on attribution and interdependence theories, two experiments tested the hypothesis that close friends of victims (third parties) are less forgiving than the victims themselves (first parties). In Experiment 1, individuals imagined a scenario in which either their romantic partner or the romantic partner of a close friend committed the identical relationship offense. Third parties were less forgiving than first parties, a phenomenon we termed the third-party forgiveness effect.
Prior research has distinguished between emotional versus sexual infidelity. Two studies examined the development of the Perceptions of Dating Infidelity Scale (PDIS) to assess attitudes toward specific behaviors that constitute these types of infidelity in romantic relationships. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated three factors to the scale: Ambiguous, Deceptive, and Explicit behaviors. In both studies, there were gender differences on ratings of the behaviors.
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the association between explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes was moderated by implicit self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 210 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships to complete measures of their explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, mate retention strategies, and likelihood of future infidelity.
Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
PROBLEM STATEMENT AND BACKGROUND: The evaluation of professionalism often relies on the observation and interpretation of students' behaviors; however, little research is available regarding faculty's interpretations of these behaviors. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 30 faculty, who were asked to respond to five videotaped scenarios in which students are placed in professionally challenging situations. Behaviors were catalogued by person and by scenario. RESULTS: There was little agreement between faculty about what students should and should not do in each scenario.