BACKGROUND: Applicants to medical school often state that they are motivated by a desire to help others. Admissions officers must evaluate these claims, but assessment of altruism is difficult and imprecise. SUMMARY: A purely utilitarian moral philosophy denies the possibility of altruism. However, the Enlightenment philosopher Hume described a force, sympathy, that engages channels of communication between persons and rewards benevolence.
Two studies tested the impact of an alibi witness's relationship to a defendant on the perceived credibility of that witness. In the first study, 291 mock jurors estimated the frequency with which individuals would invent alibis, the frequency they themselves would do so, and the frequency of interpersonal contact among individuals of varying relationships. The degree of relationship between an alibi witness and a defendant remained a predictor of witness credibility when contact frequency was controlled. In the second study, 512 mock jurors were randomly assigned to case scenarios.
Most people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) disclose their serostatus to their sexual partners and take steps to protect their partners from HIV. Prior research indicates that some PLWHA portray themselves to their sexual partners as HIV-negative or otherwise misrepresent their HIV status. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of misleading sexual partners about HIV status and to identify factors associated with misleading.
We remember very well when another person has cheated us, but is this due to the cheating's immorality or due to its negative consequences? Theories claiming that reputational memory helps retaliate cheating imply that we should be sensitive both to the norm violation and to the personal consequences of another person's cheating. In the present study, faces were presented with descriptions of immoral and moral behavior.
British Journal of Psychology (London, England: 1953)
Following the study of Gibson & Curran (1974), a further sample of 45 subjects were tested on the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and a slightly modified form of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS) in precisely the same way. The results in this second sample were broadly the same as those obtained in the earlier study. Combining the two samples, it was found that the sex variable provided some interesting contrasts. The power of the lie scale of the EPI to predict hypnotic susceptibility observed earlier was found to be a significant effect only for males.
The differential effects of role-played vs. hypnotically induced simulation of a paranoid syndrome on diagnostic and validity scales of the MMPI were tested with 30 female undergraduate Ss. Hypnotized Ss given the paranoid syndrome suggestion simulated the MMPI more accurately than did role-playing Ss. The F scale and Gough F-K index of dissimulation identified the role-playing group, but not the hypnosis with simulation suggestion group.
Highly hypnotizable nonsimulators and high- and low-hypnotizable simulators of hypnosis were administered a hypnotic amnesia suggestion and tested for recall and recognition of a previously learned word list. Simulators exhibited higher levels of recall and recognition amnesia than nonsimulators. Most important, simulators recognized "forgotten" words at lower levels than expected by chance significantly more often than did nonsimulators. Implications for the detection of simulated amnesia in clinical samples are discussed.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Induction of a dissociative state followed by suggestion during interrogation caused a suspect to develop pseudo-memories of raping his daughters and of participation in a baby-murdering Satanic cult. The pseudo-memories coupled with influence from authority figures convinced him of his guilt for 6 months. During this time, the suspect, the witnesses, and all the evidence in the case were studied. No evidence supported an inference of guilt and substantial evidence supported the conclusion that no crime had been committed.
Do the verbal reports of deeply hypnotized Ss truthfully reflect their subjective experiences of hypnotic suggestions? Experiment 1 established that the electrodermal skin conductance response (SCR) provides an effective method for detecting deception in the laboratory equally well in hypnotized and nonhypnotized Ss. In Experiment 2, deeply hypnotized and simulating Ss were administered a number of hypnotic suggestions in a typical hypnotic session, without mention of deception, and were questioned about their experiences while SCR measures were recorded concurrently.
Little is known about how jurors arrive at verdicts in cases involving recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse. Study 1 investigated mock jurors' reactions to the recovered-memory testimony of an alleged victim when a therapist intervened with hypnosis, suggestion, or symptom management. When a therapist used hypnosis, jurors viewed the victim's recovered-memory testimony as particularly accurate and credible, and favored the victim in their verdicts.