NaCT (sodium-coupled citrate transporter) is an Na(+)-coupled citrate transporter identified recently in mammals that mediates the cellular uptake of citrate. It is expressed predominantly in the liver. NaCT is structurally and functionally related to the product of the Indy (I'm not dead yet) gene in Drosophila, the dysfunction of which leads to lifespan extension. Here, we show that NaCT mediates the utilization of extracellular citrate for fat synthesis in human liver cells, and that the process is stimulated by lithium.
Aging is genetically determined and environmentally modulated. In a study of longevity in the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we found that five independent P-element insertional mutations in a single gene resulted in a near doubling of the average adult life-span without a decline in fertility or physical activity. Sequence analysis revealed that the product of this gene, named Indy (for I'm not dead yet), is most closely related to a mammalian sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter-a membrane protein that transports Krebs cycle intermediates.
Indy is a gene in Drosophila melanogaster which, when made dysfunctional, leads to an extension of the average adult life span of the organism. The present study was undertaken to clone the Indy gene-product and to establish its functional identity. We isolated a full-length Indy cDNA from a D. melanogaster cDNA library. The cDNA codes for a protein of 572 amino acids [( Drosophila Indy (drIndy)]. In its amino acid sequence, drIndy exhibits comparable similarity to the two known Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate transporters in mammals; namely, NaDC1 (35% identity) and NaDC3 (34% identity).
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Caloric restriction extends life span in a variety of species, highlighting the importance of energy balance in aging. A new longevity gene, Indy (for I'm not dead yet), which doubles the average life span of flies without a loss of fertility or physical activity, was postulated to extend life by affecting intermediary metabolism.
We have cloned and functionally characterized two Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate transporters, namely ceNaDC1 and ceNaDC2, from Caenorhabditis elegans. These two transporters show significant sequence homology with the product of the Indy gene identified in Drosophila melanogaster and with the Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate transporters NaDC1 and NaDC3 identified in mammals. In a mammalian cell heterologous expression system, the cloned ceNaDC1 and ceNaDC2 mediate Na(+)-coupled transport of various dicarboxylates.
Reduced expression of the Indy (I'm Not Dead, Yet) gene in D. melanogaster and its homolog in C. elegans prolongs life span and in D. melanogaster augments mitochondrial biogenesis in a manner akin to caloric restriction. However, the cellular mechanism by which Indy does this is unknown. Here, we report on the knockout mouse model of the mammalian Indy (mIndy) homolog, SLC13A5. Deletion of mIndy in mice (mINDY(-/-) mice) reduces hepatocellular ATP/ADP ratio, activates hepatic AMPK, induces PGC-1α, inhibits ACC-2, and reduces SREBP-1c levels.