Immune activation is an effective as well as protective approach against emerging infectious diseases. The immunomodulatory activities of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) were assessed by testing the various neutrophil functions like adherence, phagocytosis (phagocytic index (P.I) and avidity index (A.I)) and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction in albino rats. In recent years much attention is being focused on the immunological changes occur during stress. Noise (100 dB) stress for 4 h/d for 15 d, was employed to alter the neutrophil functions.
Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria: 1996)
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of addictive behaviour and especially in alcohol craving. The pro-opiomelanocortin gene (POMC), encoding a 241 amino acids stretching polypeptide hormone precursor, plays an important role in the regulation of the HPA, and is prone to epigenetic regulation due to promoter-related DNA methylation. Aim of the present study therefore was to investigate possible differences in promoter-related DNA methylation in patients suffering from alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate doctors' coffee consumption at work and differences between specialties. DESIGN: Single centre retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large teaching hospital in Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS: 766 qualified doctors (425 men, 341 women) from all medical specialties (201 internal medicine, 76 general surgery, 67 anaesthetics, 54 radiology, 48 orthopaedics, 43 gynaecology, 36 neurology, 23 neurosurgery, 96 other specialties).
CONTEXT: Although numerous trials have evaluated efficacy of diet, fluid, or supplement interventions for secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis, few are included in previous systematic reviews or referenced in recent nephrolithiasis management guidelines. OBJECTIVE: To determine efficacy and safety of diet, fluid, or supplement interventions for secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Systematic review and meta-analysis of trials published January 1950 to March 2008. Sources included Medline and bibliographies of retrieved articles.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Syrian Golden hamsters prefer and consume large and remarkably constant amounts of ethanol in a simple two-bottle free-choice regimen. Ethanol intake is significantly suppressed by zimelidine, bromocriptine, buspirone, and lithium carbonate, pharmacological agents that have been shown to be beneficial in controlling ethanol intake in alcohol-dependent humans. These results suggest that this ethanol-drinking animal model has high "predictive validity" and can be used effectively in the search for and identification of new agents for the treatment of alcohol abuse.
The effects of Kamikihi-To (KMK), a traditional Chinese medicine, on behavioral changes induced by methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCM) were evaluated in mice and rats. Beta-CCM, an anxiogenic benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist (3.0 mg/kg, i.v. administered 1 min before the test), decreased the locomotor activity of mice in a novel environment. Furthermore, beta-CCM (0.1 mg/kg, i.v. administered 10 min before the test) facilitated the suppression of drinking behavior induced by punishment in the water lick conflict test in rats. KMK (1.0 and 2.0 g/kg, p.o.