OBJECTIVE: To examine the rate of spontaneous twinning in selected countries in order to evaluate the impact of environmental stress and related socioeconomic factors on balancing reproductive activity and longevity. STUDY DESIGN: Four countries with similar ancestry were considered, 2 in Africa and 2 in the Caribbean. Data on gross domestic product per capita, as a measure of indigenous conditions, access to proper diet, health care, sanitation and shelter were compared with the relative rate of twinning.
Bioethics has focused on the areas of individual ethical choices -- patient care -- or public policy and law. There are however, important arenas for ethical choices that have been overlooked. Health care is populated with intermediate arenas such as hospitals, nursing homes, hospices, and health care systems. This essay argues that bioethics needs to develop a language and concepts for institutional ethics. A first step in this direction is to think about institutional conscience.
Religious discussion of human organs and tissues has concentrated largely on donation for therapeutic purposes. The retrieval and use of human tissue samples in diagnostic, research, and education contexts have, by contrast, received very little direct theological attention. Initially undertaken at the behest of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, this essay seeks to explore the theological and religious questions embedded in nontherapeutic use of human tissue.
Government and market forces have fundamentally transformed the religious healthcare sector. Religious healthcare organizations are struggling to define their identities and determine what it is that makes them different and what implications the differences have for the delivery of social services and for public life.
Identifying what the differences are or ought to be between Catholic health care organizations and their non-Catholic counterparts is the subject of great debate. The author responds to the essays in this volume by Dennis Brodeur, Clarke E. Cochran and Christopher J. Kauffman, each of which represents a different perspective in the discussion of what is unique about Catholic health care.
Catholic health care institutions in the United States and Canada face internal and external challenges to their continued existence. Confronted by these external and internal challenges, Catholic hospitals in the United States and Canada have been pressed to identify what is distinctive about the Catholic contribution to health care and to consider whether existing institutional structures and partnerships foster what is distinctive. The author looks at the essays in this volume by Dennis Brodeur, Clarke E. Cochran, and Christopher J.