Data from the US National Huntington's Disease Roster have been analysed in terms of the difference in age of onset (AO) between affected parents and affected offspring, that is, in terms of 'anticipation'. While mean AO in offspring of affected mothers did not differ greatly from AO in their mothers, the distribution of AO in the offspring of affected fathers falls into two groups, the larger group showing an AO only slightly younger than their affected fathers and a small group whose AO was, on average, 24 years younger than their affected fathers.
The possibility has to be considered that the infant, in danger of overwhelming himself with his own excitement, forms object-representations in ways dictated by expediency. It is necessary for survival to establish in one's mind an all-powerful and loving object-representation that contains in it major parts of the self-representation. In fact, all the vital and affective functions are attributed to the parenting object and are used only under a "franchise-like" illusion.
Fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral morphological traits is the result of prenatal developmental instability and has been shown to be greater in organisms having more homozygous genotypes (aabb vs. AaBb, for example). This expected increase in fluctuating asymmetry has been found among individuals having a high degree of liability for schizophrenia, as this disorder appears to have a polygenic basis.
A study of very early onset Huntington's disease (VEOHD) has shown that at least 38% of gene-carrying sibs also develop symptoms before the age of 10, thus improving the genetic risk for those sibs who remain healthy. The prevalence of VEOHD among sibs shows that mutation during spermatogenesis is most unlikely to account for these uncommon cases. The data suggest that two mechanisms contribute to VEOHD: modification by many genes (individually of small effect), and an epigenetic mechanism occurring when transmission is through a series of males.
In the first part Freud's clinical theories and models and the ego psychological theory were described from which ensues a general pattern of objective relations. The second part of the paper attempts a synthesis of the most important psychoanalytical theories, the creation of a uniform model of psychic functioning using an epigenetic pattern. The author analyzes in more detail developmental trends of these mental functions which are considered in psychoanalysis decisive for adaptation.
Praxis Der Kinderpsychologie Und Kinderpsychiatrie
The model of ego development by Loevinger describes an epigenetic series of successive stages comprising increasingly complex styles of impulse control, interpersonal relationships, moral and cognitive reasoning. This model offers an opportunity to explore the structural premises young adults rely on solving their developmental tasks. Controls compared to patients show a significantly superior intrapsychic coping, awareness of social rules and knowledge of interpersonal relations.
This article, based more on speculation than on clinical work, aims at clarifying the nature of child autistic syndromes using two elements: epigenetic findings concerning the construction of human brain and the idea that there is a self-organizing development and functioning of the living. First initiated by H. Atlan (1979) and A. Bourguignon (1981), this approach could lead to a fruitful understanding of autistic disturbances, both consistent with developmental neurobiology and psychodynamics.
The initial assumptions as to the existence of neurodevelopmental disorders have been confirmed by almost a century of studies focused on the nature and causes of reading disability. Dyslexia is an umbrella term for the various manifestations of reading disabilities, each of which is related to its own complex of neuropsychological dysfunctions, sometimes accompanied by neurological symptoms that can be indicative of the specific location involved.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
OBJECTIVE: The authors present a model of the developmental psychopathology and neurobiology of Tourette's syndrome that provides a framework for ongoing research and treatment. METHOD: The model is based on clinical experience and a selective review of relevant scientific literature. RESULTS: During the past decade, Tourette's syndrome and related conditions have emerged as model disorders to study the interplay of genetic, neurobiological, psychological, and environmental factors during development.
Psychoanalytic theorists concerned with substance abuse suggest that the affect tolerance and affect expression of addicts are impaired due to preverbal influences. However, psychoanalytic contributions have largely been limited to clinical speculations and case study reports. The present study investigated the hypotheses that opiate abusers will demonstrate more impaired affect tolerance and affect expression than cocaine abusers, and that both groups would appear more impaired than a sample of normals.