There has been vigorous debate over the use of placebo controls in clinical trials in human subjects where active treatments are already in widespread use. The debate has extended from the use of placebo controls in trials of products for AIDS in developing countries to the use of placebos in trials in conditions such as mild hypertension, asthma, depression, chronic stable angina etc. Some have argued that placebos can never be justified where an active treatment exists.
Several ethical transgressions involving human subjects in scientific research during the last century have led to guidelines for acceptable research conduct and oversight. Thoughtful examination of these events yielded ethical documents whose principles eventually became codified into federal regulations governing research. These regulations specify the composition and function of the institutional review board (IRB), as well as the criteria by which the IRB judges the acceptability of proposed research.
INTRODUCTION: Participants' perceptions of their research experiences provide valuable measures of ethical treatment, yet no validated instruments exist to measure these experiences. We conducted focus groups of research participants and professionals as the initial step in developing a validated instrument. METHODS: Research participants enrolled in 12 focus groups, consisting of: (1) individuals with disorders undergoing interventions; (2) in natural history studies; or (3) healthy volunteers.
INTRODUCTION: Scholars have debated how to define coercion and undue influence, but how institutional review boards (IRBs) view and make decisions about these issues in actual cases has not been explored. METHODS: I contacted the leadership of 60 US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), and interviewed 39 IRB leaders or administrators from 34 of these institutions (response rate=55%), and 7 members.
BACKGROUND: Non-therapeutic trials in which terminally ill cancer patients are asked to undergo procedures such as biopsies or venipunctures for research purposes, have become increasingly important to learn more about how cancer cells work and to realize the full potential of clinical research.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examines the effect collaborative testing has on achievement of students taking a basic science course at a chiropractic college. METHODS: The grades of 2 cohorts of students taking a basic science course were compared: the control group from the first academic term (n = 73) and the experimental group from the second academic term (n = 41). The control cohort completed weekly quizzes as individuals. The experimental cohort completed the weekly quizzes in small collaborative groups.