B vitamin deficiencies lead to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, which has been associated with health and disease. However, concomitant derangements in cellular methylation, reflected by altered plasma S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations, may be the primary cause. Therefore, we identified determinants of homocysteine, SAM, and SAH concentrations in 336 women, aged 20-48 y, as part of a large study focusing on risk factors for reproductive disorders.
Ground, raw soybeans (SB), or dried distillers grain plus solubles (DDGS) were utilized in heifer development diets to determine the effect of dietary fat and protein source on hormone and follicle characteristics and ADG. The experiment was conducted over 2 yr with 100 June-born heifers (199 +/- 2 kg initial BW, n = 50 per yr). The experimental periods were 157 and 207 d in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Heifers were provided a dietary supplement (DM basis) of 1.23 kg of SB and 0.40 kg of corn or 1.65 kg of DDGS between weaning and breeding.
There is now considerable interest in the intestinally derived soy isoflavone metabolite, equol, which occurs in the enantiomeric forms, S-(-)equol and R-(+)equol, both differing in biological actions. Little is known about effects of either enantiomer on reproductive development, yet such knowledge is fundamental because of the recent commercialization of S-(-)equol as a dietary supplement. S-(-)equol and R-(+)equol were therefore investigated to determine their effects on reproductive development and fertility in the Sprague-Dawley rat.
Short day lengths or reduced food availability are salient cues for small mammals that breed seasonally. Photoperiod-mediated gonadal regression in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) is a slow, orderly process that involves testicular apoptosis. Testicular regression in response to restricted caloric intake is relatively rapid, and it is generally reversed quickly by ad libitum (ad lib) feeding.
Aging is genetically determined and environmentally modulated. In a study of longevity in the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we found that five independent P-element insertional mutations in a single gene resulted in a near doubling of the average adult life-span without a decline in fertility or physical activity. Sequence analysis revealed that the product of this gene, named Indy (for I'm not dead yet), is most closely related to a mammalian sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter-a membrane protein that transports Krebs cycle intermediates.
Evolutionary models of aging propose that a trade-off exists between the resources an organism devotes to reproduction and growth and those devoted to cellular maintenance and repair, such that an optimal life history always entails an imperfect ability to resist stress. Yet, since environmental stressors, such as caloric restriction or exposure to mild stress, can increase stress resistance and life span, it is possible that a common genetic mechanism could regulate the allocation of resources in response to a changing environment (for overview, see ).
Caloric or dietary restriction is known to be protective against cancer in humans and in mice but the mechanism is uncertain. Given that somatic mutations are important in carcinogenesis, dietary restriction may act by changing mutation rates. Indeed, previous studies have shown that reductions in caloric intake during development or in adult life make mice less susceptible to high doses of mutagens. In these studies there have been hints that the spontaneous mutant frequency may also be reduced, but no significant decrease has been observed save in one study of very old mice.
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Caloric restriction (CR) has been found to extend the life spans of a wide variety of species, transcending phylogenetic boundaries. The objective of this study was to test the generality of this phenomenon, using the male housefly as an insect model in which food intake can be quantified precisely. Sucrose was found to promote a longer life span than diets additionally containing proteins and lipids. Flies were fed sucrose or a more complex diet ad libitum (AL), or in amounts ranging from 50% to 100% of the average amount consumed by young flies.
BACKGROUND: Childhood caloric restriction may lead to permanent changes in the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, which could lead to impaired female reproductive ability. We assessed the effect of childhood exposure to the 1944-1945 Dutch famine on subsequent female reproductive function. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study in Utrecht, The Netherlands. Between 1983 and 1985, 6030 women born between 1932-1941 were classified by questionnaire according to their famine exposure experiences.
Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society
An axiom of life-history theory, and fundamental to our understanding of ageing, is that animals must trade-off their allocation of resources since energy and nutrients are limited. Therefore, animals cannot "have it all"--combine high rates of fecundity with extended lifespans. The idea of life-history trade-offs was recently challenged by the discovery that ageing may be governed by a small subset of molecular processes independent of fitness.