Flunitrazepam, a derivative of benzodiazepine was used for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in 933 patients. The induction dose was from 1,786 to 2,053 mg. The total dose of 2-2.66 mg was sufficient for maintenance of hypnosis for about 2 hours. The undesirable side effects were very rare. The average time of hypnosis after a single dose of flunitrazepam was 50.1 sec. The sedative action of the drug lasted for some time after regaining of consciousness. In most patients there was no need for administration of analgetics during first 24 hours after the operation.
Over the last 20 years standardized techniques have been employed for the investigation of intravenous hypnotics, psychotropic and neuroleptic drugs. Sleep has been studied with the help of EEG measures and side-effects have been evaluated by psychometric tests. The EEG is a proven parameter with regard to dosage determination and as objective means to find sleep-inducing quantities of drugs. By means of vigilosomnograms we have established dose-effect curves and have made comparisons between related drugs in the form of equivalence studies.
Several findings suggest that barbiturates and alcohol produce their sedative effects through a common neural and possibly a common genetic mechanism. We tested this hypothesis by examining the correlation between ethanol and pentobarbital sedative effects in individual animals from a genetically heterogeneous population. The duration of pentobarbital-induced hypnosis (sleep-time) was unrelated to the sleep-time produced by ethanol in heterogeneous stock (HS) mice.
Ethyl 2-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-4-imidazolecarboxylate (TG41) enhanced the binding both of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and of flunitrazepam to rat cerebral cortical membranes. Electrophysiological recordings from Xenopus oocytes expressing various recombinant GABA(A) receptor subtypes revealed that TG41 enhanced the function of all receptor subunit combinations tested. The potency of TG41 at receptors containing alpha1, beta2, and gamma2L subunits was greater than that of alphaxalone, etomidate, propofol, or pentobarbital.
Benzodiazepines are sedatives used for anxiolysis, hypnosis, muscle relaxation and the treatment of epilepsy. Paradoxical reactions including agitation, talkativeness, confusion, disinhibition, aggression, violent behavior and loss of impulse control may, however, occur in some subjects. It has been claimed that high doses of flunitrazepam may cause aggression on a more regular basis in all individuals.
Nitrobenzodiazepine (NBDZ) is an addictive drug of the abused substances that causes severe neurological effects and even death. Bacterial type I nitroreductase NfsB (EC 22.214.171.124) has been reported to catalyze NBDZ into inactive metabolite 7-amino-benzodiazepine (7ABDZ) with promising activity, so as to become an attractive candidate for treatment of NBDZ overdose and addiction. Here, we investigate the nitroreduction of an NBDZ, flunitrazepam (FZ), by various mutants of NfsB designed from the solved crystal structure and characterize their in vitro and in vivo potency.
AIM OF THE STUDY: Marsilea minuta Linn. (Marsileaceae) has been referred in Indian traditional medicine system (Ayurveda) for the treatment of insomnia and other mental disorders. Marsiline isolated from Marsilea minuta was reported to have sedative and anticonvulsant property. The ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta was standardised for marsiline (1.15%, w/w) and studied for its antidepressant activity.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) inhalation has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of anxiety, and clinical and animal studies have corroborated its anxiolytic effect, although its mechanism of action is still not fully understood. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The objective of the present study was to determine whether the GABAA/benzodiazepine complex or serotonin neurotransmission mediates the anxiolytic-like effect of lavender essential oil.
We investigated the effects of the long-term administration of Kamikihito (KKT) on the specific binding of [3H]muscimol and [3H]flunitrazepam in the brains of young and aged rats using in vitro quantitative autoradiography. Specific [3H]muscimol binding in aged rats was decreased in all brain regions examined compared with that in young rats, whereas [3H]flunitrazepam binding did not change in any of the brain regions.