European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences: Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Piplartine (piperlongumine, 5,6-dihydro-1-[(2E)-1-oxo-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenyl]-2(1H)-pyridinone) is a biologically active alkaloid/amide from peppers, as from long pepper (Piper longum L. - Piperaceae). Long pepper is one of the most widely used in Ayurvedic medicine, which is used to treat many diseases, including tumors.
Our recent results on the plum pox virus (PPV) epidemiology show that PPV spreads very rapidly in plum tree plantations in the contaminated areas. A clearing of the PPV-infected trees reduces significantly the spread of the virus but does not eliminate the disease. Some plum tree cultivars, hybrids and rootstocks (Scoldus, Alina, Cristi, BN 1/8Fl, BN 2Gr. etc) showing field resistance could not be infected with PPV by natural way. However, they could be infected with PPV by artificial inoculation except for the plum tree cv.
The relative concentration of plum pox virus (PPV) in leaves and flowers of plum, damson, myrobalan, blackthorn, apricot and peach trees was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and expressed as the lowest dilution with positive reaction. Significant differences in relative PPV concentration were found in leaves among individual Prunus species naturally or artificially infected with the virus. The highest relative PPV concentration was found in blackthorns (7.81 x 10(-4)), common plum and apricot (1.56 x 10(-3) for the both latters).
The antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of Terminalis chebula Retz., Sanguisorba officinalis L., Rubus coreanus Miq. and Rheum palmatum L. were examined by a cell culture system using a hepatitis B virus (HBV) producing cell line, HepG2 2.2.15. The extracts were assayed for the inhibition of HBV multiplication by measurement of HBV DNA and surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in the extracellular medium of HepG2 2.2.15 cells after an 8-day treatment.
The bioassay-directed isolation of Terminalia chebula fruits afforded four human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitors, gallic acid ( 1) and three galloyl glucoses ( 2 - 4). In addition, four flavonol glycoside gallates ( 5 - 8) from Euphorbia pekinensis containing the galloyl moiety also showed the inhibitory activity at a level comparable to those of 2 - 4.
Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named 'Triphala' (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced with Fe(2+)/ascorbate were food to be 85.5, 27, 74 and 69 micro g/ml, respectively.
A 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit, was studied for its effects on growth in several malignant cell lines including a human (MCF-7) and mouse (S115) breast cancer cell line, a human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-1), a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) and a non-tumorigenic, immortalized human prostate cell line (PNT1A) using assays for proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and coulter counting), cell viability (ATP determination) and cell death (flow cytometry and Hoechst DNA staining).
Zhong Yao Cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
The fatty oils in Terminulia chebula were extracted by supercritical-CO2 fluid extraetion, and their fatty acids and its relative contents were determined by GC-MS. 12 fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid of them are main constituents. Compared with petroleum ether extraction method, the extraction rate from SFE-CO2 is higher and extraction time shorter.
Statistically based experimental designs were applied to the optimization of cultural conditions for tannase production, an enzyme of great importance, from Penicillium variable. First, D-optimal design was used to evaluate the effects of variables, including concentrations of substrate (chebulic myrobalan, fruits of the tree Terminalia chebula ), pH, inoculum density, agitation and incubation period, on tannase production. The optimum value of pH and inoculum density thus obtained was 5.0 and 5 x 10(7) spores/50 ml respectively.
Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrates for production of tannase and gallic acid was carried out using two fungal cultures, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). The tannin rich substrates included powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and Caesalpinia digyna pod cover powder. The different environmental parameters for the maximum production of tannase and gallic acid were optimized through media engineering.