BACKGROUND: Sex differences in stress responses may be one mechanism underlying gender differences in depression. We hypothesized that men and women would show different adrenocortical responses to different stressors. In particular, we predicted that women would show greater responses to social rejection stressors, whereas men would demonstrate greater responses to achievement stressors.
OBJECTIVE: To assess body shape ideals across gender, sexual orientation, race, socio-economic status, and age, METHOD: An analysis of personal advertisements was conducted across seven different publications which targeted the groups of interest. RESULTS: Women advertised body weight much less often than men, and lesbians reported body shape descriptors significantly less often than heterosexual women. Gay men and African-American men described their body shape significantly more often than did other groups.
Modern historical research of women and nursing has largely neglected the role of religious groups, particularly in the American frontier. The image of women at the end of the 19th century was one of submission to male authority and confinement to the domestic sphere. However, in the pluralistic West, a variety of organized religious women built and administered hospitals, initiated professional nursing, and provided effective health care services.
In his paper "The Catholic Church, the American Military, and Homosexual Reorientation Therapy," David W. Lutz ultimately concludes that it is "appropriate, and highly ethical" for the American military to offer reorientation therapy to help homosexuals overcome "the vice of sodomy." The major thrust of his paper, however, is to call for abandonment of the "Don't Ask/Don't Tell" policy currently in place in the military.
Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of rural Filipinos concerning the various factors influencing birth spacing. The Household Production of Health nested in the Ecological Model was used to provide the conceptual framework for this study. Analysis of ethnographic data produced one domain of meaning, Factors Influencing Birth Spacing, and six categories: (a) gender relations, (b) religion and the Catholic Church, (c) contraceptive technology, (d) media, (e) family and friends, and (f) family planning education.
Jesuit-run Marian Congregations proliferated in 1930s Spain. Drawing on literature produced for their members, this article demonstrates how gendered understandings were fundamental to the congregations' symbolic delineation of an uncontaminated Catholic space. Visions of an incorrupt male elite abound, reinforcing the Jesuits' educational mission among future leaders and opinion-formers. In contrast, the purity of women and children was seen as a sign of society's moral health. Modesty was the quintessential female virtue.
OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the opinions of Mexicans in the state of Tlaxcala on abortion and other topics concerning women's reproductive health and status in society. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We summarize opinions on abortion and women's roles in society and perform logit regressions to assess characteristics correlated with support for abortion rights.
The Caribbean region presents the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS worldwide after sub-Saharan Africa; leading to serious social, economic and health consequences at the local scale but also at the regional and global levels. In Colombia, a national plan to tackle the epidemic was formulated with little evidence that its implementation in the local context is effective.
Sex sterotypes, clinical observations, and psychoanalytic theory of sex differences are presented. Stereotypes show differences in areas of inhibition and clinical observations, differences related to the phallic and genital phases in psychosexual development. Divergent analytical views on the sexual development of boys and girls are discussed.