Genetic Markers

Publication Title: 
Current Psychiatry Reports

Antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) is a prevalent side effect of antipsychotic treatment, particularly with second generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine and olanzapine. At this point, there is virtually nothing that can be done to predict who will be affected by AIWG. However, hope for the future of prediction lies with genetic risk factors. Many genes have been studied for their association with AIWG with a variety of promising findings. This review will focus on genetic findings in the last year and will discuss the first epigenetic and biomarker findings as well.

Author(s): 
Shams, Tahireh A.
M¸ller, Daniel J.
Publication Title: 
Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz

Obesity is a relevant medical problem. Around 60?% of German adults are overweight, 20?% are obese. The hereditary contribution to the variance of body weight is high. Nevertheless, molecular genetic studies have as yet explained only a small part of the inter-individual variability in the body mass index (BMI). Monogenic forms of obesity, in which loss of a single gene product leads to extreme obesity, are very infrequent. Variance of body weight is commonly explained by a complex interplay of many genetic variants (polygenic obesity).

Author(s): 
Hinney, A.
Herrfurth, N.
Schonnop, L.
Volckmar, A.-L.
Publication Title: 
Human Molecular Genetics

To investigate epigenetic contributions to Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis, we carried out genome-wide mapping of the transcriptional mark, trimethyl-histone H3-lysine 4 (H3K4me3) in neuronal nuclei extracted from prefrontal cortex of HD cases and controls using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep-sequencing.

Author(s): 
Bai, Guang
Cheung, Iris
Shulha, Hennady P.
Coelho, Joana E.
Li, Ping
Dong, Xianjun
Jakovcevski, Mira
Wang, Yumei
Grigorenko, Anastasia
Jiang, Yan
Hoss, Andrew
Patel, Krupal
Zheng, Ming
Rogaev, Evgeny
Myers, Richard H.
Weng, Zhiping
Akbarian, Schahram
Chen, Jiang-Fan
Publication Title: 
European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists

BACKGROUND: Though cognitive abilities in adulthood are largely influenced by individual genetic background, they have also been shown to be importantly influenced by environmental factors. Some of these influences are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Accordingly, polymorphic variants in the epigenetic gene DNMT3B have been linked to neurocognitive performance.

Author(s): 
CÛrdova-Palomera, A.
FatjÛ-Vilas, M.
Kebir, O.
GastÛ, C.
Krebs, M. O.
FaÒan·s, L.
Publication Title: 
Epigenetics

Aberrant DNA methylation in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been reported in several previous studies. However, no comprehensive studies using medication-free subjects with MDD have been conducted. Furthermore, the majority of these previous studies has been limited to the analysis of the CpG sites in CpG islands (CGIs) in the gene promoter regions. The main aim of the present study is to identify DNA methylation markers that distinguish patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls.

Author(s): 
Numata, Shusuke
Ishii, Kazuo
Tajima, Atsushi
Iga, Jun-ichi
Kinoshita, Makoto
Watanabe, Shinya
Umehara, Hidehiro
Fuchikami, Manabu
Okada, Satoshi
Boku, Shuken
Hishimoto, Akitoyo
Shimodera, Shinji
Imoto, Issei
Morinobu, Shigeru
Ohmori, Tetsuro
Publication Title: 
Genes, Brain, and Behavior

Early life adversity plays a critical role in the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and this could occur through epigenetic programming. In this perspective, we aimed to determine whether childhood maltreatment could durably modify epigenetic processes by the means of a whole-genome methylation scan of BPD subjects.

Author(s): 
Prados, J.
Stenz, L.
Courtet, P.
Prada, P.
Nicastro, R.
Adouan, W.
Guillaume, S.
OliÈ, E.
Aubry, J.-M.
Dayer, A.
Perroud, N.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with preterm birth (PTB), although the reason underlying this relationship is still unclear. Our objective was to examine DNA methylation patterns of 4 ASD candidate genes in human fetal membranes from spontaneous PTB and uncomplicated term birth. STUDY DESIGN: A literature search for genes that have been implicated in ASD yielded 14 candidate genes (OXTR, SHANK3, BCL2, RORA, EN2, RELN, MECP2, AUTS2, NLGN3, NRXN1, SLC6A4, UBE3A, GABA, AFF2) that were epigenetically modified in relation to ASD.

Author(s): 
Behnia, Fara
Parets, Sasha E.
Kechichian, Talar
Yin, Huaizhi
Dutta, Eryn H.
Saade, George R.
Smith, Alicia K.
Menon, Ramkumar
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: The genetic component of alcohol use disorder is substantial, but monozygotic twin discordance indicates a role for nonheritable differences that could be mediated by epigenetics. Despite growing evidence associating epigenetics and psychiatric disorders, it is unclear how epigenetics, particularly DNA methylation, relate to brain function and behavior, including drinking behavior. METHOD: The authors carried out a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of 18 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for alcohol use disorder and validated differentially methylated regions.

Author(s): 
Ruggeri, Barbara
Nymberg, Charlotte
Vuoksimaa, Eero
Lourdusamy, Anbarasu
Wong, Cybele P.
Carvalho, Fabiana M.
Jia, Tianye
Cattrell, Anna
Macare, Christine
Banaschewski, Tobias
Barker, Gareth J.
Bokde, Arun L. W.
Bromberg, Uli
B¸chel, Christian
Conrod, Patricia J.
Fauth-B¸hler, Mira
Flor, Herta
Frouin, Vincent
Gallinat, J¸rgen
Garavan, Hugh
Gowland, Penny
Heinz, Andreas
Ittermann, Bernd
Martinot, Jean-Luc
Nees, Frauke
Pausova, Zdenka
Paus, Tom·ö
Rietschel, Marcella
Robbins, Trevor
Smolka, Michael N.
Spanagel, Rainer
Bakalkin, Georgy
Mill, Jonathan
Sommer, Wolfgang H.
Rose, Richard J.
Yan, Jia
Aliev, Fazil
Dick, Danielle
Kaprio, Jaakko
DesriviËres, Sylvane
Schumann, Gunter
IMAGEN Consortium
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Oncology

Metastatic chondrosarcoma of mesenchymal origin is the second most common bone malignancy and does not respond either to chemotherapy or radiation; therefore, the search for new therapies is relevant and urgent. We described recently that tumor growth inhibiting cytostatic proline-rich polypeptide 1, (PRP-1) significantly upregulated tumor suppressor miRNAs, downregulated onco-miRNAs in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line, compared to chondrocytes culture.

Author(s): 
Galoian, Karina
Qureshi, Amir
D'Ippolito, Gianluca
Schiller, Paul C.
Molinari, Marco
Johnstone, Andrea L.
Brothers, Shaun P.
Paz, Ana C.
Temple, H. T.
Publication Title: 
BMJ open

OBJECTIVES: Although psychological factors have been associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), the underlying pathways for these associations have yet to be elucidated. DNA methylation has been posited as a mechanism linking psychological factors to CHD risk. In a cohort of community-dwelling elderly men, we explored the associations between positive and negative psychological factors with DNA methylation in promoter regions of multiple genes involved in immune/inflammatory processes related to atherosclerosis. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

Author(s): 
Kim, Daniel
Kubzansky, Laura D.
Baccarelli, Andrea
Sparrow, David
Spiro, Avron
Tarantini, Letizia
Cantone, Laura
Vokonas, Pantel
Schwartz, Joel

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