Gerbillinae

Publication Title: 
Neurochemical Research

The fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz has been used as a traditional medicine in Asia and contains tannic acid, chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid and corilagin. Extract from T. chebula seeds (TCE) has various biological functions. We observed the neuroprotective effects of TCE against ischemic damage in the hippocampal C1 region (CA1) of the gerbil that had received oral administrations of TCE (100 mg/kg) once a day for 7 days before the induction of transient cerebral ischemia.

Author(s): 
Park, Joon Ha
Joo, Han Seung
Yoo, Ki-Yeon
Shin, Bich Na
Kim, In Hye
Lee, Choong Hyun
Choi, Jung Hoon
Byun, Kyunghee
Lee, Bonghee
Lim, Soon Sung
Kim, Myong Jo
Won, Moo-Ho
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Aging is characterized by accumulation of potentially harmful altered proteins that could lead to gradual deterioration of cellular functions and eventually result in increased probability of death. Metabolic turnover of proteins thus plays an essential role in maintaining the life of an organism. In this article we summarize our current knowledge on age-related changes in protein turnover with special reference to degradation. Increase in half-life of proteins with advancing age is well documented.

Author(s): 
Goto, S.
Takahashi, R.
Kumiyama, A. A.
Rad·k, Z.
Hayashi, T.
Takenouchi, M.
Abe, R.
Publication Title: 
Gastroenterology

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis has been linked to the microbial oncoprotein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Spermine oxidase (SMO) metabolizes the polyamine spermine into spermidine and generates H(2)O(2), which causes apoptosis and DNA damage. We determined if pathogenic effects of CagA are attributable to SMO.

Author(s): 
Chaturvedi, Rupesh
Asim, Mohammad
Romero-Gallo, Judith
Barry, Daniel P.
Hoge, Svea
de Sablet, Thibaut
Delgado, Alberto G.
Wroblewski, Lydia E.
Piazuelo, M. Blanca
Yan, Fang
Israel, Dawn A.
Casero, Robert A.
Correa, Pelayo
Gobert, Alain P.
Polk, D. Brent
Peek, Richard M.
Wilson, Keith T.
Publication Title: 
Gut Microbes

We have recently reported that Helicobacter pylori strains expressing the virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) stimulate increased levels of spermine oxidase (SMO) in gastric epithelial cells, while cagA⁻ strains did not. SMO catabolizes the polyamine spermine and produces H₂O₂ that results in both apoptosis and DNA damage. Exogenous overexpression of CagA confirmed these findings, and knockdown or inhibition of SMO blocked CagA-mediated apoptosis and DNA damage.

Author(s): 
Chaturvedi, Rupesh
de Sablet, Thibaut
Peek, Richard M.
Wilson, Keith T.
Publication Title: 
ACS chemical neuroscience

Resveratrol, a natural stilbene present at relatively high concentrations in grape skin and seeds and red wine, is known for its purported antioxidant activity in the vascular and nervous systems. In contrast to its direct antioxidant role within the central nervous system, recent research supports a protective mechanism through increasing endogenous cellular antioxidant defenses, which triggers a cascade of parallel neuroprotective pathways.

Author(s): 
Singh, Nilendra
Agrawal, Megha
Doré, Sylvain
Publication Title: 
Japanese Journal of Pharmacology

The protective effects of Kamikihi-To (KMK), a traditional Chinese medicine, against cerebral ischemia, hypoxia and anoxia were investigated with various experimental models in mice and gerbils. KMK (2.0 g/kg/day, p.o. for 5 days) significantly prolonged the survival time of mice subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. KMK (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg/day, p.o. for 5 days) also prolonged the survival time of mice injected with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA: 80 mg/kg, i.v.).

Author(s): 
Nishizawa, K.
Inoue, O.
Saito, Y.
Suzuki, A.
Publication Title: 
Annali dell'Istituto Superiore Di Sanità

The effects of electroacupuncture (EA) has been studied in a model of global cerebral ischaemia performed in gerbils through the bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO). Animals, under isofluorane anaesthesia, underwent 5 min of BCAO and were killed after 7 days. The effects of EA were evaluated both on functional (with electrophysiological recordings of synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices) and morphological parameters (by counting the number of survived neurons in CA1 area of the hippocampus).

Author(s): 
Domenici, Rosaria Maria
Mingfu, Luo
Tebano, Maria Teresa
Reggio, Rosaria
Chiarotti, Flavia
Petti, Filomena
Liguori, Aldo
Popoli, Patrizia
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