Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
OBJECTIVE: Dispositional optimism and risk perceptions are each associated with health-related behaviors and decisions and other outcomes, but little research has examined how these constructs interact, particularly in consequential health contexts. The predictive validity of risk perceptions for health-related information seeking and intentions may be improved by examining dispositional optimism as a moderator, and by testing alternate types of risk perceptions, such as comparative and experiential risk.
The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N?=?770; T2: N?=?510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers.
In this, the second decade of the AIDS epidemic, most gay men have adequate knowledge of the most efficient transmission routes. Men know the techniques recommended to significantly reduce the likelihood of transmission. Men do not want to be infected. Yet some continue to take chances for sexual transmission of HIV. Why? This paper will explore the reasons given by men in a small city for engaging (or not) in specific sexual practices.
Information technology is being used to collect data directly from patients and to provide educational information to them. Concern over patient reactions to this use of information technology is especially important in light of the debate over whether computers dehumanize patients. This study reports reactions that patient users expressed in ethnographic interviews about using a computer-based telecommunications system.
Social support refers to the presence of individuals providing emotional or material resources. Its four components are: integration, structure, function, and quality. This article presents empirical and theoretical data, as well as criticism of studies which examine the relationship between social support, global health and cardiovascular health, also evaluating direct or moderating contributions to the adoption and maintenance of health behaviours in persons with cardiovascular disease. Concrete implications for nursing practice are reviewed.
This column seeks to contribute to the understanding of the concept of sacrifice and its significance to nursing through an extensive account of relevant literature from the disciplines of theology, sociology, anthropology, and psychology. The review uncovered that in sacrificing something of value, individuals anticipate connecting with families, groups, society, and deities.
BACKGROUND: Romantic partnerships between drug-using couples, when they are recognized at all, tend to be viewed as dysfunctional, unstable, utilitarian, and often violent. This study presents a more nuanced portrayal by describing the interpersonal dynamics of 10 heroin and cocaine-using couples from Hartford, Connecticut. RESULTS: These couples cared for each other similarly to the ways that non-drug-using couples care for their intimate partners. However, most also cared by helping each other avoid the symptoms of drug withdrawal.
OBJECTIVES: We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between smoking and romantic attractions and relationships. METHODS: We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to assess associations of smoking at Waves I and II with same-sex, both-sex, and opposite-sex romantic attractions or relationships as determined at Wave I. We used logistic regression to predict smoking at Wave II by sexual orientation.
OBJECTIVE: To examine if one partner's premarital health behavior was longitudinally associated with his or her partner's health behaviors. METHODS: Newlyweds were assessed at marriage and at 3 follow-ups with respect to frequency of general health behaviors: exercise, physical examinations, and healthy and unhealthy eating. RESULTS: One partner's health behavior prior to marriage was associated with the other partner's health behavior over time. This was true for positive and negative behaviors for both men and women.
Exercise self-efficacy is a powerful predictor of physical activity behavior, which enhances health and well-being for older adults. Social relations have been proposed as influential precursors for exercise self-efficacy. In a longitudinal study of 160 older adults with osteoarthritis (76.9% women), the authors found that social support (but not social strain) significantly predicted exercise self-efficacy in a structural equation model examining cross-sectional data: chi(2) (178, N = 160) = 264.57, p < .01; RMSEA = .06; CFI = .92; TLI = .90.