Health Care and Public Health

Publication Title: 
Medical Care

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the attitudes of the transplant community toward the current policy of altruistic organ donation and 6 alternative policies offering incentives to the donor family.

Author(s): 
Jasper, J. D.
Nickerson, Carol A. E.
Ubel, Peter A.
Asch, David A.
Publication Title: 
Zygon

This essay argues that Japan's resistance to the practice of transplanting organs from persons deemed "brain dead" may not be the result, as some claim, of that society's religions being not yet sufficiently expressive of love and altruism. The violence to the body necessary for the excision of transplantable organs seems to have been made acceptable to American Christians at a unique historical "window of opportunity" for acceptance of that new form of medical technology.

Author(s): 
LaFleur, William R.
Publication Title: 
Vaccine

The fact that certain vaccines are grown in cell strains derived decades ago from an aborted fetus is a concern for some. To understand such concerns, a standardized search identified internet sites discussing vaccines and abortion. Ethical concerns raised include autonomy, conscience, coherence, and immoral material complicity. Two strategies to analyse moral complicity show that vaccination is ethical: the abortions were past events separated in time, agency, and purpose from vaccine production. Rubella disease during pregnancy results in many miscarriages and malformations.

Author(s): 
Zimmerman, Richard Kent
Publication Title: 
Experimental and Clinical Transplantation: Official Journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation

In 1984, an offensive proposal for kidney sales by a US physician led the National Organ Transplant Act to become a law in the United States. Similar legislation passed in many other countries. An ethical consensus developed around the world that there should be no monetary compensation for transplantable organs, either from living or deceased persons. Unfortunately, the altruistic supply of organs has been much less than adequate, and thousands of patients die each year waiting for organ transplantation.

Author(s): 
Ghods, Ahad J.
Publication Title: 
The American journal of bioethics: AJOB

Almost 60,000 people in the United States with end stage renal disease are waiting for a kidney transplant. Because of the scarcity of organs from deceased donors live kidney donors have become a critical source of organs; in 2001, for the first time in recent decades, the number of live kidney donors exceeded the number of deceased donors.

Author(s): 
Steinberg, David
Publication Title: 
Bioethics

The seriousness of the risk that healthcare workers faced during SARS, and their response of service in the face of this risk, brings to light unrealistic assumptions about duty and risk that informed the debate on duty to care in the early years of HIV/AIDS. Duty to care is not based upon particular virtues of the health professions, but arises from social reflection on what response to an epidemic would be consistent with our values and our needs, recognizing our shared vulnerability to disease and death.

Author(s): 
Reid, Lynette
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Applied Philosophy

Anticipating the reevaluation of the Dutch organ procurement system, in late 2003 the Rathenau Institute published a study entitled 'Gift or Contribution?' In this study, the author, Govert den Hartogh, carries out a thorough moral analysis of the problem of organ shortage and fair allocation of organs. He suggests there should be a change in mentality whereby organ donation is no longer viewed in terms of charity and the volunteer spirit, but rather in terms of duty and reciprocity.

Author(s): 
Ravelingien, An
Krom, Andre
Publication Title: 
Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law

The growing need for organ and tissue transplants has led a number of states to enforce a policy that views a donor's declared intent to be an organ donor as legally binding. This allows health officials to harvest organs without the permission of the next of kin. Legally binding consent is controversial because of concerns that it may anger family members, lead to negative publicity, and discourage potential donors. We use interviews and a pooled time-series data set of cadaveric donation rates in U.S. states to evaluate the effectiveness of this policy.

Author(s): 
Mesich-Brant, Jennifer L.
Grossback, Lawrence J.

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