In this article we will examine the relation between physicians and (representatives of) the pharmaceutical industry. More in particular we want to discuss the appropriateness of some of the gifts that are given to physicians by companies in the pharmaceutical (and medical equipment) industry, since there has been growing concern about the potential negative consequences of these so-called 'gift-giving practices'.
This comprehensive article is based on three previous studies on people's reactions on receiving transplants of various kinds: a survey of the public, in-depth interviews with informants recruited from this survey and two other surveys, and in-depth interviews with heart and kidney recipients. The ideas and reactions of the public, when confronted with the issue of receiving a transplant in a hypothetic situation, vary from magical thinking to a conception of the body as an object in need of repair. The actual recipients show a similar variation in their reactions as the public.
Methods for procurement, processing and distribution of allograft tissues have changed rapidly and many of the advances have resulted in widespread use of allograft tissues for reconstruction. However, unlike other types of orthopaedic implants, these human graft tissues are not simple commodities delivered to the surgeon or operating room in prepackaged sterile containers, but rather are more akin to gifts from a donor to a patient in need.
The study compared personal interviews and a postal survey, posing the same questions to two random samples independently drawn from the same population. It sought reasons why respondents began and may subsequently terminate, involvement as voluntary blood donors in Toronto Canada. The priorities of respondents (ordinal rankings) were virtually identical in the two samples, notwithstanding a clear response rate and socio-economic differential between the modes. Differences in item response rates were compatible with explanations involving interviewer bias and question threat.
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
We conducted a telephone survey of parents in the National Capital Region to assess their intention to donate their child's organs and to provide physicians with information that could help alleviate their concerns about approaching parents for consent. Of 339 parents who agreed to answer questions after being given details of their child's "death" 288 (85%) said that they would be willing to donate their child's organs.
The lack of an adequate supply of cadaver organs and tissues for transplantation to those in need poses a major challenge to the transplant community and to those responsible for public policy. Historically, Americans have relied upon a combination of altruism and voluntarism to generate an adequate supply of cadaver organs and tissues. The ongoing shortage of organs and tissues has led, in recent years, for calls to abandon these values in favor of either a market system or a system of presumed consent.
1. For cadaveric organs in the West, there are many avenues that should be pursued in order to increase the supply. Most of the measures under "giving" in Table 2 are ethical, though we do not accept the implication that those who enroll, in advance, as future organ donors should thereby obtain priority for their own possible future transplant organ needs. 2. "Legislated taking" could be ethically justified if shown to be acceptable to most persons in a society or culture, with provision for opting out for those with minority opinions and beliefs.
Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Referral patterns of physicians have a direct impact upon the care of patients, particularly in obstetrics and gynecology. The choice of referral is influenced by the history of specialization, physician altruism, and intricate patterns of financial conflicts of interest. The conflicts of interest are further obscured by the lack of clear definition of roles and responsibilities for generalist, specialist, and subspecialist. Alternate patterns for referral based on financial incentives or directed referral care plans are reviewed to examine the potential conflicts of interest.