Journal of transplant coordination: official publication of the North American Transplant Coordinators Organization (NATCO)
The availability of donor organs was analyzed following the placement of a transplant coordinator in Ga-Rankuwa Hospital's kidney transplant program. From February 1, 1992, to January 6, 1994, 44 brain-dead potential donors were identified. In 20 of those cases, relatives could not be reached to acquire consent for donation of cadaveric organs. In the remaining 24 cases, an intensive care resident together with a transplant coordinator obtained consent for 9 potential donors.
This is a continuation of and a development of a debate between John Keown and me. The issue discussed is whether, in Britain, an unpaid system of blood donation promotes and is justified by its promotion of altruism. Doubt is cast on the notions that public policies can, and, if they can, that they should, be aimed at the promotion and expression of altruism rather than of self-interest, especially that of a mercenary sort.
Human organ transplantation is an important treatment for certain medical conditions, and for irreversible organ failure. There is a shortfall in the number of organs required for transplantation. The close and continuous proximity of nurses to potential donors and their families make them critical links in the organ donation process. Therefore, success in organ procurement may depend on nurses' awareness and integration of knowledge about donotransplantation (the process of organ/tissue donation and transplantation).
In this paper, a survey is conducted to study the attitudes of Hong Kong residents towards organ donation after death. It is found that 60.3% of the respondents are willing to donate organs, which is comparable to those cited in the literature. The results also indicate that the willingness to donate is related to age, occupation and attitude. A factor analysis of attitudes yielded four factors, including form of burial, altruism, lack of understanding on organ donation and lack of confidence in professional conduct of medical doctors.
A male patient was admitted to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) unit for hemodialysis. His history revealed that he was homeless and that he had tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+). He also had a history of alcohol and intravenous drug abuse and tuberculosis. Based on the results of a chest X-ray, he was placed in respiratory isolation. During the next few days of his hospitalization, he exhibited nonadherent behavior toward the treatment regime.
Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics: CQ: the international journal of healthcare ethics committees
Exploitation of resident physicians still occurs and can result in working conditions so unfavorable that patients are endangered. Because residents are vulnerable to exploitation, and because they are not fully accountable for patient care or for fully developed professionalism until they have completed their training, for just ends it is morally acceptable for residents to strike.
Clinicians performing psychiatric assessments of potential organ donors must consider the motivations behind an act that is--strictly in terms of its physiological implications--entirely altruistic. The authors present two case reports in which proposed kidney donors conceptualized their offers exclusively in terms of their religious beliefs and not in terms of kinship or emotional intimacy with the intended recipients.
In an earlier article in this journal, I advanced five ethical arguments in favour of a voluntary, unpaid system of blood donation. In his reply to my article, Hugh McLachlan criticised one of those arguments, namely, the argument that an unpaid system promotes altruism and social solidarity. In this reply to Dr. McLachlan, I maintain that his criticism is misguided, and that he appears unclear not only about my own argument, but also about his own.
In the study of organ and tissue transplantation, the focus tends to be on donation. But where there is "giving," there is also "getting:" receiving help. Altruism, helping behavior, and the exchange of benefits have received extensive attention from social psychological researchers. The gift exchange described by anthropologist Marcel Mauss provides a framework for reviewing this social psychological research on altruism and exchange and applying it to transplantation.
The political legitimacy and policymaking influence of the medical profession have greatly declined in American society over the past 30 years. Despite speculation about the causes, there has been little empirical research assessing the different explanations. To address this gap, data collected in 1995 are used to compare attitudes of the American public and policy elites toward medical authority.