The principal objective of this paper is to provide health practitioners with information on the positive aspects of shorter stature for use in counseling short children with poor self-images. Another objective is to provide information on the physical capabilities, health potential and psychosocial characteristics of shorter stature as a baseline for deciding whether a healthy short child should receive growth hormone therapy.
Restriction of the number of calories consumed extends longevity in many organisms. In rodents, caloric restriction decreases the levels of plasma glucose and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and postpones or attenuates cancer, immunosenescence, and inflammation without irreversible side effects. In organisms ranging from yeast to mice, mutations in glucose or IGF-I-like signaling pathways extend life-span but also cause glycogen or fat accumulation and dwarfism.
GH can induce changes in body composition that are considered to be advantageous to aging subjects especially. However, there are no results indicating that the use of GH during aging should be advocated, because of the lack of any proven efficacy for whatever parameter. Also, data indicate that calorie restriction can extend life spans by altering the rate of decline in reserve capacity as well as by reducing the cumulative exposure to GH. Moreover, animal data suggest that lower GH actions are positively correlated with longevity.
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
There are two principal directions in ageing research: (i) the quest for understanding the mechanisms that determine the length of life and the use of such knowledge in order to find a potentially life extending treatment and (ii) the attempt to improve the quality of life in the elderly by reversing or preventing functional decline of different tissues without primarily extending life span. This chapter addresses the importance of assessing the potential impact of interventions on quality of life rather than extending life.
Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et MÈtabolisme
We examined the effects of diets based on a low isoflavone or a high isoflavone soy protein isolates in normal, growth-hormone receptor knockout and Ames dwarf, and Prop 1 (df) mice that are hypoinsulinemic, insulin-sensitive, and exceptionally long-lived, as well as in growth hormone transgenic mice that are hyperinsulinemic, insulin-resistant, dyslipidemic, and short-lived. Soybean diets tended to normalize plasma cholesterol levels in dwarf and transgenic mice, while low isoflavone diet reduced plasma triglycerides in most of the examined genotypes.
Growth hormone release and IGF-I synthesis decrease with increasing age. The regulation of the GH/IGF-I system is dependent on the integrity of the hypothalamus, pituitary and liver. During aging there are several changes which contribute to the decline in GH/IGF-I including changes in signal to the somatotrophs from growth hormone releasing hormone, somatostatin and other factors such as body composition, exercise, diet and sleep. All of these factors are discussed in detail within this review.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Despite the fact that growth hormone (GH) has not been approved for antiaging purposes, its use for this indication is widespread and increasing. The Growth Hormone Research Society (GRS) convened an international workshop to critically review and debate the available evidence related to the use of GH in the older adults and the relationship between the GH/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis and the aging process.
Aging is characterized by a deterioration in the maintenance of homeostatic processes over time, leading to functional decline and increased risk for disease and death. The aging process is characterized metabolically by insulin resistance, changes in body composition, and physiological declines in growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and sex steroids. Some interventions designed to address features of aging, such as caloric restriction or visceral fat depletion, have succeeded in improving insulin action and life span in rodents.