A common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is mutations in superoxide dismutase-1, which provoke the disease by an unknown mechanism. We have previously found that soluble hydrophobic misfolded mutant human superoxide dismutase-1 species are enriched in the vulnerable spinal cords of transgenic model mice. The levels were broadly inversely correlated with life spans, suggesting involvement in the pathogenesis.
BACKGROUND: Volatile aromatic compounds such as benzene are general anesthetics that cause amnesia, hypnosis, and immobility in response to noxious stimuli when inhaled. Although these compounds are not used clinically, they are frequently found in commercial items such as solvents and household cleaning products and are abused as inhalant drugs. Volatile aromatic anesthetics are useful pharmacological tools for probing the relationship between chemical structure and drug activity at putative general anesthetic targets.
BACKGROUND: Carboetomidate is an etomidate derivative that produces hypnosis without inhibiting adrenal corticosteroid synthesis. Similar to etomidate, carboetomidate modulates ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, but its effects on other ion channel targets of general anesthetics are unknown. METHODS: We compared etomidate and carboetomidate effects on human N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors or neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nnAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using 2-microelectrode voltage clamp electrophysiology.
BACKGROUND: It has been known for over a decade that Plasmodium falciparum proteins are enriched in non-globular domains of unknown function. The potential for these regions of protein sequence to undergo high levels of genetic drift provides a fundamental challenge to attempts to identify the molecular basis of adaptive change in malaria parasites. RESULTS: Evolutionary comparisons were undertaken using a set of forty P. falciparum metabolic enzyme genes, both within the hominid malaria clade (P. reichenowi) and across the genus (P. chabaudi).
A series of new high charge density Polyquaternium-67(1) (PQ-67) polymers have been prepared and evaluated in shampoo formulations. These new compositions represent an addition to the family of high-viscosity quaternized hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) polymers with cationic substitution of trimethyl ammonium and dimethyldodecyl ammonium(2) (Figure 1A) described in (1) and (2). The evaluation protocol included objective lab methods and subjective panel studies on different hair types.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Devil's Club (Oplopanax horridus) is one of the most important spiritual and medicinal plants to many indigenous peoples of Alaska and the Pacific Northwest. It is widely used for external and internal infections as well as arthritis, respiratory ailments, digestive tract ailments, broken bones, fever, headaches, and cancer. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate hydrophobic constituents and their potential anticancer activity from Devil's Club, Oplopanax horridus.
Semiconductor quantum dots (Qdots) are a promising new technology with benefits in the areas of medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Qdots generally consist of a semiconductor core, capping shell, and surface coating. The semiconductor core of Qdots is often composed of group II and VI metals (e.g., Cd, Se, Te, Hg) that are known to have toxic properties. Various surface coatings have been shown to stabilize Qdots and thus shield cells from the toxic properties of their core elements.
The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit the P-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells.
Indoloquinoline alkaloids represent an important class of antimalarial, antibacterial and antiviral compounds. Indolo[2,3-b]quinolines are a family of DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II, synthetic analogs of neocryptolepine, an alkaloid traditionally used in African folk medicine. These cytotoxic substances are promising anticancer agents. Active representatives of indolo[2,3-b]quinolines affect model and natural membranes.
Src kinase is an attractive target for drug development based on its established relationship with cancer and possible link to hypertension. The suitability of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds as potential drug ligands for further biological evaluation was investigated using structure-based, ligand-based, and molecular dynamics (MD) analysis. Isopraeroside IV, 9alpha-hydroxyfraxinellone-9-O-beta-D-glucoside (9HFG) and aurantiamide were the top three TCM candidates identified from docking.