Immunity, Innate

Publication Title: 
Homeopathy: The Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy

BACKGROUND: The 'hygiene hypothesis' has been used to justify a belief common among homeopaths, that the suppression of childhood infections and immunisation may lead to the development of chronic atopic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the influence of childhood infections and immunisation on the development of atopy. METHODS: Qualitative systematic review of direct epidemiological evidence (Medline 1993-2004) concerning the influence of childhood infections and immunisation on the development of atopy and discussion based on homeopathy.

Author(s): 
Adler, U. C.
Publication Title: 
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik

Prunus species express different ranges and levels of resistance to the root-knot nematodes (RKN) Meloidogyne spp. In Myrobalan plum ( Prunus cerasifera), the dominant Ma gene confers a high-level and wide-spectrum resistance to the predominant RKN, Meloidogyne arenaria, Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica and the isolate Meloidogyne sp. Florida which overcomes the resistance of the Amygdalus sources. In Japanese plum ( Prunus salicina), a similar wide-spectrum dominant resistance gene, termed R(jap), has been hypothesized from an intraspecific segregating cross.

Author(s): 
Claverie, M.
Bosselut, N.
Lecouls, A. C.
Voisin, R.
Lafargue, B.
Poizat, C.
Kleinhentz, M.
Laigret, F.
Dirlewanger, E.
Esmenjaud, D.
Publication Title: 
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik

Inheritance and linkage studies were carried out with microsatellite [or simple sequence repeat (SSR)] markers in a F(1) progeny including 101 individuals of a cross between Myrobalan plum ( Prunus cerasifera Ehrh) clone P.2175 and the almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.)-peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch) hybrid clone GN22 ["Garfi" (G) almond x "Nemared" (N) peach].

Author(s): 
Dirlewanger, E.
Cosson, P.
Howad, W.
Capdeville, G.
Bosselut, N.
Claverie, M.
Voisin, R.
Poizat, C.
Lafargue, B.
Baron, O.
Laigret, F.
Kleinhentz, M.
Arús, P.
Esmenjaud, D.
Publication Title: 
Plant Physiology

Root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne species are major polyphagous pests of most crops worldwide, and cultivars with durable resistance are urgently needed because of nematicide bans. The Ma gene from the Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera) confers complete-spectrum, heat-stable, and high-level resistance to RKN, which is remarkable in comparison with the Mi-1 gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the sole RKN resistance gene cloned. We report here the positional cloning and the functional validation of the Ma locus present at the heterozygous state in the P.2175 accession.

Author(s): 
Claverie, Michel
Dirlewanger, Elisabeth
Bosselut, Nathalie
Van Ghelder, Cyril
Voisin, Roger
Kleinhentz, Marc
Lafargue, Bernard
Abad, Pierre
Rosso, Marie-Noëlle
Chalhoub, Boulos
Esmenjaud, Daniel
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Cell Biology

The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a crucial intracellular regulator of the immune system. Recent studies have suggested that immunosuppression by TOR inhibition may be mediated by modulating differentiation of both effector and regulatory CD4 T cell subsets. However, it was paradoxically shown that inhibiting TOR signaling has immunostimulatory effects on the generation of long-lived memory CD8 T cells. Beneficial effects of TOR inhibition have also been observed with dendritic cells and hematopoietic stem cells.

Author(s): 
Araki, Koichi
Ellebedy, Ali H.
Ahmed, Rafi
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has in recent years been proven to be a powerful in vivo model for testing antimicrobial compounds. We report here that the alkaloid compound Harmane (2-methyl-?-carboline) increases the lifespan of nematodes infected with a human pathogen, the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and several other bacterial pathogens. This was shown to be unrelated to the weak antibiotic effect of Harmane. Using GFP-expressing E. coli EDL933, we showed that Harmane does not lower the colonization burden in the nematodes.

Author(s): 
Jakobsen, Henrik
Bojer, Martin S.
Marinus, Martin G.
Xu, Tao
Struve, Carsten
Krogfelt, Karen A.
L¯bner-Olesen, Anders
Publication Title: 
PLoS pathogens

Removal of the reproductive system of many animals including fish, flies, nematodes, mice and humans can increase lifespan through mechanisms largely unknown. The abrogation of the germline in Caenorhabditis elegans increases longevity by 60% due to a signal emitted from the somatic gonad. Apart from increased longevity, germline-less C. elegans is also resistant to other environmental stressors such as feeding on bacterial pathogens.

Author(s): 
Rae, Robbie
Sinha, Amit
Sommer, Ralf J.
Publication Title: 
BMC cancer

BACKGROUND: Peto's paradox stipulates that there is no association between body mass (a surrogate of number of cells and longevity) and cancer prevalence in wildlife species. Resolving this paradox is a very promising research direction to understand mechanisms of cancer resistance. As of present, research has been focused on the consequences of these evolutionary pressures rather than of their causes.

Author(s): 
Roche, Benjamin
Hochberg, Michael E.
Caulin, Aleah F.
Maley, Carlo C.
Gatenby, Robert A.
Misse, DorothÈe
Thomas, FrÈdÈric
Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Immunology

The purpose of immunology is simple. Cure or prevent disease. M1/M2 is useful because it is simple. M1/M2 describes the two major and opposing activities of macrophages. M1 activity inhibits cell proliferation and causes tissue damage while M2 activity promotes cell proliferation and tissue repair. Remarkably, the molecules primarily responsible for these "Fight" (NO) or "Fix" (Ornithine) activities both arise from arginine, and via enzymatic pathways (iNOS and arginase) that down regulate each other.

Author(s): 
Mills, Charles D.
Publication Title: 
Genetics

Neurodegeneration is a hallmark of the human disease ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) that is caused by mutation of the A-T mutated (ATM) gene. We have analyzed Drosophila melanogaster ATM mutants to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in A-T. Previously, we found that ATM mutants upregulate the expression of innate immune response (IIR) genes and undergo neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Here, we present evidence that activation of the IIR is a cause of neurodegeneration in ATM mutants.

Author(s): 
Petersen, Andrew J.
Katzenberger, Rebeccah J.
Wassarman, David A.

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