BACKGROUND: Influenza is an infectious virus affecting both humans and animals. In humans, symptoms present as fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, headache, muscle and joint pain, and malaise. The epidemiological profile of influenza is influenced by multiple factors, including transmissibility of the virus and the susceptibility of the population. Annually, influenza is estimated to infect 5% to 10% of adults, with higher rates in winter seasons in countries with seasonal variation.
OBJECTIVE: This review addresses the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs), with an emphasis on factors that determine the potential for psychostimulant abuse. Strategies for identification and treatment of patients with ADHD who are at risk for, or have, co-morbid SUD are also addressed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The article was based on a qualitative review of current literature addressing co-morbid ADHD and SUD.
BACKGROUND: Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is one of the largest unmet needs in the breast cancer survivor population. This review addresses this unmet need with the question. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to better understand potential interventions to manage FCR when caring for breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Databases used were PubMed, CINAHL®, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Scopus.
Medication adherence is a crucial part in the management of chronic diseases. As older adults form a greater proportion of the population with chronic diseases and multiple morbidities, understanding medication adherence in older adults becomes important. In the present article, we aimed to systematically review the literature for the factors associated with medication adherence in the geriatric population. We carried out a literature search using electronic databases and related keywords. 17?391 articles were reviewed in total. 65 articles were found to be relevant to our objective.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Shocking news of robberies committed using hypnosis on bank cashiers, salespeople, or passers-by has sporadically been reported by the media in countries around the world. The first reported episode in Italy dates to the 1950s. Although the phenomenon has been reported in the papers more frequently in recent years, no objective analysis of it has been published in the scientific literature.
OBJECTIVE: To apply the Bradford Hill criteria, which are widely used to establish causality between an environmental agent and disease, to evaluate the relationship between over-the-counter intranasal zinc gluconate therapy and anosmia. DESIGN: Patient and literature review applying the Bradford Hill criteria on causation. SETTING: University of California, San Diego, Nasal Dysfunction Clinic.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of homeopathic medicines by critically appraising reports of adverse effects published in English from 1970 to 1995. METHOD: Systematic review on information regarding adverse effects of homeopathic medicines identified using electronic databases, hand searching, searching reference lists, reviewing the bibliography of trials, and other relevant articles, contacting homeopathic pharmaceutical companies and drug regulatory agencies in UK and USA, and by communicating with experts in homeopathy.
CONTEXT: Primary hyperparathyroidism (P-HPT) is one of the most common of all endocrine disorders. Eighty percent to 85% of cases are due to parathyroid adenomas while hyperplasia and carcinoma account for 10% to 15% and less than 1%, of cases, respectively. The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of parathyroid hyperplasia and neoplasia. Additionally, imaging studies and the development of the intraoperative assay for parathyroid hormone have transformed the diagnosis and management of patients with these disorders.
The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Tissue damage due to oxidative stress has been implicated in aging, memory loss, and cataract formation. We hypothesized that persons who achieved exceptional longevity with preserved cognition (successful aging [SAG]) would exhibit a lower rate of age-related cataract (ARC) than the general population. The age-specific rates of ARC for a group of 100 (50 male, 50 female) elderly persons who reached at least age 90 years with preserved cognition were compared to the corresponding rates of ARC reported in five population-based studies.
JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association
CONTEXT: Polymorphisms in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene have been associated with exceptional longevity and lower cardiovascular risk, but associations with memory decline and dementia risk are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at CETP codon 405 (isoleucine to valine V405; SNP rs5882) is associated with a lower rate of memory decline and lower risk of incident dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD).