Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) occurs predominantly after the age of 50 years but is not easy to distinguish from late onset insulin-dependent diabetes. It is likely that misclassification is rare in a Caucasian population. Whilst NIDDM is widely believed to be genetically determined, recent epidemiological observations have consistently revealed statistical associations between indices of poor fetal and infant growth with susceptibility to loss of glucose tolerance in adult life.
Low birth weight (LBW) and hypoxia are among the environmental factors most reliably associated with schizophrenia; however, the nature of this relationship is unclear and both gene-environment interaction and gene-environment covariation models have been proposed as explanations. High-risk (HR) designs that explore whether obstetric complications differentially predict outcomes in offspring at low risk (LR) vs HR for schizophrenia, while accounting for differences in rates of maternal risk factors, may shed light on this question.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that impaired foetal growth may provide an early indication of increased risk of child attention problems. However, despite both foetal growth and child attention problems differing by sex, few studies have examined sex differences in this association. Furthermore, no studies have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries, where there are higher rates of perinatal problems.
BACKGROUND: Young adults born preterm at very low birth weight start families later. Whether less severe immaturity affects adult social outcomes is poorly known. METHODS: The study "Preterm birth and early life programming of adult health and disease" (ESTER, 2009-2011) identified adults born early preterm (<34 weeks' gestation, N = 149), late preterm (? 34 to <37 weeks' gestation, N = 248), and at term (?
The clinical application of hypnosis has been effective in obstetrics. Intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios are dreaded complications of pregnancy that may result in preterm deliveries causing increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. In this longitudinal prospective study, clinical hypnosis was used in addition to the conventional medical management in such pregnancies. The perinatal outcome was compared with the control group wherein hypnosis was not used.
In this study we examined the relationship between praying for one's baby during pregnancy and self-ratings of health. Data were collected from a biethnic (black and Hispanic) sample of postpartum mothers in Galveston, Tex, from 1986 to 1987. This sample is representative of the annual biethnic population of live births in Galveston. Subjective health was assessed for the periods both before and during pregnancy with self-ratings of global or overall health, worry over health, and functional health or lack of disability.
Depressed pregnant women were classified as dysthymic or major depression disorder based on the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression and followed to the newborn period. The newborns of dysthymic versus major depression disorder mothers had a significantly shorter gestational age, a lower birthweight, shorter birth length and less optimal obstetric complications scores. The neonates of dysthymic mothers also had lower orientation and motor scores and more depressive symptoms on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale.
Pregnant black depressed women were compared to pregnant black non-depressed women on self-report stress measures and cortisol levels at mid and late pregnancy and on neonatal outcomes. The depressed women had higher anxiety, anger, daily hassles, sleep disturbance scores and cortisol levels at both prenatal visits. These higher stress levels may have contributed to the greater incidence of prematurity and low birthweight neonatal outcomes noted in the depressed group, and they may partially explain the higher rate of prematurity and low birthweight among black women.
The effects of comorbid depression and anxiety were compared to the effects of depression alone and anxiety alone on pregnancy mood states and biochemistry and on neonatal outcomes in a large multi-ethnic sample. At the prenatal period the comorbid and depressed groups had higher scores than the other groups on the depression measure. But, the comorbid group had higher anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores than the other groups, and they had lower dopamine levels. As compared to the non-depressed group, they also reported more sleep disturbances and relationship problems.
Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP
Thirty preterm cocaine-exposed preterm neonates (mean gestational age 30 wks, mean birth weight = 1212 g, mean intensive care unit duration = 18 days) were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a control group as soon as they were considered medically stable. Group assignment was based on a random stratification of gestational age, birth weight, intensive care unit duration, and entry weight into the study. The treatment group (N = 15) received massages for three 15-minute periods 3 consecutive hours for a 10-day period.