Intestines

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and clopidogrel are two major antithrombogenic agents that are widely used for the treatment and prevention of cerebro- and cardiovascular conditions such as stroke. Combined use produces enhanced therapeutic effect. Aspirin and clopidogrel both are esters, and hydrolysis leads to decreased or inactivated therapeutic activity. The aim of the study was to determine whether aspirin and clopidogrel are hydrolyzed by the same enzyme(s), thus reciprocally prolonging the antithrombogenic activity.

Author(s): 
Tang, Man
Mukundan, Madhu
Yang, Jian
Charpentier, Nathan
LeCluyse, Edward L.
Black, Chris
Yang, Dongfang
Shi, Deshi
Yan, Bingfang
Publication Title: 
Molecular Biology of the Cell

Maintenance of intestinal mucosal epithelial integrity requires polyamines that modulate the expression of various genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Recently, polyamines were shown to regulate the subcellular localization of the RNA-binding protein HuR, which stabilizes its target transcripts such as nucleophosmin and p53 mRNAs. The activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2) mRNA encodes a member of the ATF/CRE-binding protein family of transcription factors and was computationally predicted to be a target of HuR.

Author(s): 
Xiao, Lan
Rao, Jaladanki N.
Zou, Tongtong
Liu, Lan
Marasa, Bernard S.
Chen, Jie
Turner, Douglas J.
Zhou, Huiping
Gorospe, Myriam
Wang, Jian-Ying
Publication Title: 
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

BACKGROUND: Bacteria play a role in inflammatory bowel disease and other forms of intestinal inflammation. Although much attention has focused on the search for a pathogen or inciting inflammatory bacteria, another possibility is a lack of beneficial bacteria that normally confer anti-inflammatory properties in the gut. The purpose of this study was to determine whether normal commensal bacteria could inhibit inflammatory pathways important in intestinal inflammation.

Author(s): 
Petrof, Elaine O.
Claud, Erika C.
Sun, Jun
Abramova, Tatiana
Guo, Yuee
Waypa, Tonya S.
He, Shu-Mei
Nakagawa, Yasushi
Chang, Eugene B.
Publication Title: 
Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology

While bidirectional brain-gut interactions are well known mechanisms for the regulation of gut function in both healthy and diseased states, a role of the enteric flora--including both commensal and pathogenic organisms--in these interactions has only been recognized in the past few years.

Author(s): 
Rhee, Sang H.
Pothoulakis, Charalabos
Mayer, Emeran A.
Publication Title: 
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research

BACKGROUND: Clinical and animal data indicate that gut-derived endotoxin and other luminal bacterial products are necessary cofactors for development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Although gut leakiness is clearly an important cause of endotoxemia in ALD, it cannot fully explain endotoxemia in all ALD subjects and thus other factors may be involved. One possible factor is a change in gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis).

Author(s): 
Mutlu, Ece
Keshavarzian, Ali
Engen, Phillip
Forsyth, Christopher B.
Sikaroodi, Masoumeh
Gillevet, Patrick
Publication Title: 
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

The purpose of this research was to develop a sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method to analyze matrine, an anticancer compound, and to use it to investigate its biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic behaviors in rats. A sensitive and fast UPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to determine matrine in rat plasma, intestinal perfusate, bile, microsomes, and cell incubation media. The absolute oral bioavailability of matrine is 17.1+/-5.4% at a dose of 2mg/kg matrine.

Author(s): 
Yang, Zhen
Gao, Song
Yin, Taijun
Kulkarni, Kaustubh H.
Teng, Yang
You, Ming
Hu, Ming
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Equol [7-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-chroman], an isoflavan produced by intestinal bacteria in response to soy isoflavone intake in some but not all humans, exhibits a wide range of biological properties. It exists as the diastereoisomers S-(-)equol and R-(+)equol. Intestinal bacteria produce exclusively S-(-)equol, which has selective affinity for estrogen receptor (ER)-beta.

Author(s): 
Setchell, Kenneth D. R.
Clerici, Carlo
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Equol, first isolated from equine urine in 1932 and identified 50 years later in human urine as a metabolite of the soy isoflavones, daidzin and daidzein, is produced by intestinal bacteria in some, but not all, adults. This observation led to the term equol-producers to define those adults that could make equol in response to consuming soy isoflavones and the hypothesis that the health benefits of soy-based diets may be greater in equol-producers than in equol nonproducers.

Author(s): 
Setchell, Kenneth D. R.
Clerici, Carlo
Publication Title: 
FEMS microbiology ecology

Phylogenetic microarrays present an attractive strategy to high-throughput interrogation of complex microbial communities. In this work, we present several approaches to optimize the analysis of intestinal microbiota with the recently developed Microbiota Array. First, we determined how 16S rDNA-specific PCR amplification influenced bacterial detection and the consistency of measured abundance values. Bacterial detection improved with an increase in the number of PCR amplification cycles, but 25 cycles were sufficient to achieve the maximum possible detection.

Author(s): 
Rigsbee, Laura
Agans, Richard
Foy, Brent D.
Paliy, Oleg
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Pharmacology

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Potent synthetic nonsteroidal liver X receptor (LXR) agonists like T0901317 induce triglyceridaemia and fatty liver, effects not observed with some natural and synthetic steroidal, relatively weak agonists of LXR. To determine if potency is responsible for the lack of side effects with some steroidal agonists, we investigated the in vivo effects of a novel steroidal LXR agonist, ATI-111, that is more potent than T0901317.

Author(s): 
Peng, Dacheng
Hiipakka, Richard A.
Xie, Jing-Tian
Dai, Qing
Kokontis, John M.
Reardon, Catherine A.
Getz, Godfrey S.
Liao, Shutsung

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Intestines