PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In a context of global concern about the consequences of stress and extreme adversities, advances in theory and methods for studying human resilience have ushered in a new era of integrative, biopsychosocial research. This review highlights recent theory, findings, and implications of resilience research on young people. RECENT FINDINGS: Resilience research has shifted toward dynamic system models with multiple levels of interaction, including research on the neurobiology of stress and adaption, epigenetic processes, and disasters.
A principal weakness of evidence-based psychiatry is that it does not account for the individual variability in therapeutic response among individuals with the same diagnosis. The aim of personalized psychiatry is to remediate this shortcoming and to use predictors to select treatment that is most likely to be beneficial for an individual. This article reviews the evidence that genetic variation, environmental exposures, and gene-environment interactions shape mental illness and influence treatment outcomes, with a primary focus on depression.
OBJECTIVES: Comorbidity among eating disorders, traumatic events, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been reported in several studies. The main objectives of this study were to describe the nature of traumatic events experienced and to explore the relationship between PTSD and anorexia nervosa (AN) in a sample of women. METHODS: Eight hundred twenty-four participants from the National Institutes of Health-funded Genetics of Anorexia Nervosa Collaborative Study were assessed for eating disorders, PTSD, and personality characteristics.
Among people exposed to major psychological stressors in early life, there are elevated rates of morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases of aging. The most compelling data come from studies of children raised in poverty or maltreated by their parents, who show heightened vulnerability to vascular disease, autoimmune disorders, and premature mortality. These findings raise challenging theoretical questions. How does childhood stress get under the skin, at the molecular level, to affect risk for later diseases?
In summary, depressed patients with a history of childhood trauma may have a distinct depression endophenotype characterized by a specific neurobiology and risk genotype that may be responsive to different treatment strategies than depressed patients without childhood adversity. Based on current findings, treatment strategies should be multimodal and include the following: 1.
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that metabolic syndrome as well as early life stress can account for immunoactivation (e.g. in the form of altered fibrinogen levels) in patients with major depression. This study aims at assessing the relationship between components of metabolic syndrome, early life stress and fibrinogen levels, taking the severity of depression into consideration. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Measures of early life stress and signs of metabolic syndrome were collected in 58 adult inpatients diagnosed with depression.
Clinical genetic studies propose a strong genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders with a heritability of about 30-67%. The present review will give an overview of linkage studies, association studies and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) yielding support for some candidate genes. Additionally, first evidence for gene-environment interactions between candidate genes of anxiety disorders and stressful life events will be reported.
CONTEXT: Our genome adapts to environmental influences, in part through epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation. Variations in the quality of the early environment are associated with alterations in DNA methylation in rodents, and recent data suggest similar processes in humans in response to early-life adversity. OBJECTIVE: To determine genome-wide DNA methylation alterations induced by early-life trauma. DESIGN: Genome-wide study of promoter methylation in individuals with severe abuse during childhood.
We assess the number of patients who we have on the Database of a Community Mental Health Team in the UK who have Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder. We report how many of these have been seen as having both disorders. Hence we discuss the issue as to whether Borderline Personality disorder is to be placed within the bipolar spectrum.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Childhood adversities have been associated with onset and worse clinical presentations of depression. Epigenetic changes may reflect childhood adversities, while their effects on clinical characteristics of depression are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether epigenetic changes were associated with childhood adversities, pretreatment characteristics, and treatment outcomes in depressive patients. In 108 patients with major depressive disorders, the methylation status in the promoter of gene encoding serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) was measured.